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Electroless functionalization of cerium oxide nanoparticles (NPs) based on the grafting of aryl groups from the reduction of diazonium salts is presented as a useful and facile method for enhancing the properties of the NPs. For this study, 4-methyl- , 4-ethyl- , and 4-n-butyl- benzene diazonium salts were used as model molecules to demonstrate the ability to change the hydrophobic properties of the cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles. The grafting reaction was investigated under two reducing environments; the addition of a chemical reducing agent, and the use of cerium oxide's native reducing property. Spectroscopic evidence for the successful attachment of aryl groups to the CeO2 nanoparticles was given by IR and 13C SS-NMR, which clearly detect characteristic aryl C-C peaks and the alkyl chains. XRD results confirmed that the NPs underlying crystal structure was unaffected by the grafting process. Thermal gravimetric analysis of the nanoparticles suggested that this method enables the formation of multilayers at the surface, as well as an increase in hydrophobic character. Hydrophobic properties of the resultant nanoparticles further examined with a water contact angle test on pressed pellets revealed increases in hydrophobicity with increasing alkyl chain length. This research opens up new possibilities for controlling the surface chemical composition of CeO2 nanoparticles as well as other nanoparticles using procedures operated in aqueous environments at room temperature.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids
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Stable cerium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element cerium, but differ in atomic weight. Ce-136, 138, and 142 are stable cerium isotopes.
Unstable isotopes of cerium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ce atoms with atomic weights 132-135, 137, 139, and 141-148 are radioactive cerium isotopes.
Iron (II,III) oxide (Fe3O4). It is a black ore of IRON that forms opaque crystals and exerts strong magnetism. The NANOPARTICLES; and MICROSPHERES of its mineral form, magnetite, have many biomedical applications.
Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.
An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Ce, atomic number 58, and atomic weight 140.12. Cerium is a malleable metal used in industrial applications.