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The characterization of high-valent iron centers in enzymes has been aided by synthetic model systems that mimic their reactivity or structural and spectral features. For example, the cleavage of dioxygen often produces an iron(IV)-oxo that has been characterized in a number of enzymatic and synthetic systems. In non-heme 2-oxogluterate dependent (iron-2OG) enzymes, the ferryl species abstracts an H-atom from bound substrate to produce the proposed iron(III)-hydroxo and caged substrate radical. Most iron-2OG enzymes perform a radical rebound hydroxylation at the site of the H-atom abstraction (HAA); however, recent reports have shown that certain substrates can be desaturated through the loss of a second H atom at a site adjacent to a heteroatom (N or O) for most native desaturase substrates. One proposed mechanism for the removal of the second H-atom involves a polar-cleavage mechanism (electron transfer-proton transfer) by the iron(III)-hydroxo, as opposed to a second HAA. Herein we report the synthesis and characterization of a series of iron complexes with hydrogen bonding interactions between bound aquo or hydroxo ligands and the secondary coordination sphere in ferrous and ferric complexes. Interconversion among the iron species is accomplished by stepwise proton or electron addition or subtraction, as well as H-atom transfer (HAT). The calculated bond dissociation free energies (BDFEs) of two ferric hydroxo complexes, differentiated by their noncovalent interactions and reactivity, suggest that neither complex is capable of activating even weak C-H bonds, lending further support to the proposed mechanism for desaturation in iron-2OG desaturase enzymes. Additionally, the ferric hydroxo species are differentiated by their reactivity toward performing a radical rebound hydroxylation of triphenylmethylradical. Our findings should encourage further study of the desaturase systems that may contain unique H-bonding motifs proximal to the active site that help bias substrate desaturation over hydroxylation.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of the American Chemical Society
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Iron-containing proteins that transfer electrons, usually at a low potential, to flavoproteins; the iron is not present as in heme. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Hemeproteins whose characteristic mode of action involves transfer of reducing equivalents which are associated with a reversible change in oxidation state of the prosthetic group. Formally, this redox change involves a single-electron, reversible equilibrium between the Fe(II) and Fe(III) states of the central iron atom (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539). The various cytochrome subclasses are organized by the type of HEME and by the wavelength range of their reduced alpha-absorption bands.
A non-heme iron protein consisting of eight apparently identical subunits each containing 2 iron atoms. It binds one molecule of oxygen per pair of iron atoms and functions as a respiratory protein.
A ubiquitous stress-responsive enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative cleavage of HEME to yield IRON; CARBON MONOXIDE; and BILIVERDIN.
Cytochromes (electron-transporting proteins) in which the heme prosthetic group is heme a, i.e., the iron chelate of cytoporphyrin IX. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)