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Urease, the most efficient enzyme known, contains an essential dinuclear Ni(II) cluster in the active site. It catalyses the hydrolysis of urea, inducing a rapid pH increase that has negative effects on human health and agriculture. Thus, control of urease activity is of utmost importance in medical, pharmaceutical, and agro-environmental applications. All known urease inhibitors are either toxic or inefficient. The development of new and efficient chemicals able to inhibit urease relies on the knowledge of all steps of the catalytic mechanism. The short (microseconds) lifetime of the urease-urea complex has hampered the obtainment of its structure. This study uses fluoride to substitute the hydroxide acting as the co-substrate in the reaction, preventing the occurrence of the catalytic steps that follow substrate binding. The 1.42-Å crystal structure of the urease-urea complex, here reported, resolves the enduring debate on the mechanism of this paradigmatic metallo-enzyme.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Angewandte Chemie (International ed. in English)
Urease decomposes urea to ammonia, and has application potential in agriculture and medical treatment. Urease proteins include structural proteins (UreA, UreB and UreC) and accessory proteins (UreD/Ur...
Urea is a widely used nitrogen fertilizer in agriculture, but considerable amounts of urea are lost through ammonia volatilization. Soil microbes are major urease producers; however, the impact of ure...
Staphylococcus aureus causes acute and chronic infections resulting in significant morbidity. Urease, an enzyme that generates NH3 and CO2 from urea, is key to pH homeostasis in bacterial pathogens un...
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The purpose of this study is to determine if acetohydroxamic acid (AHA) can prevent hydrolysis of urea by inhibiting the bacterial urease of gut flora of both healthy control adults as wel...
Nowadays, the gold standard examinations for diagnosing H. pylori infection are histopathology and culture examination. However, those examinations take long preparation so they are not su...
In this short-term study a method for the evaluation of the metabolic competency of the urea cycle in vivo will be assessed. In order to monitor the efficacy of new treatment options for p...
RATIONALE: The urea cycle is the process in which nitrogen is removed from the blood and converted into urea, a waste product found in urine . Urea cycle disorders are inherited disorders ...
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An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of urea and water to carbon dioxide and ammonia. EC 18.104.22.168.
The urea concentration of the blood stated in terms of nitrogen content. Serum (plasma) urea nitrogen is approximately 12% higher than blood urea nitrogen concentration because of the greater protein content of red blood cells. Increases in blood or serum urea nitrogen are referred to as azotemia and may have prerenal, renal, or postrenal causes. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
An amino acid produced in the urea cycle by the splitting off of urea from arginine.
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
A complex of proteins that assemble the SNRNP CORE PROTEINS into a core structure that surrounds a highly conserved RNA sequence found in SMALL NUCLEAR RNA. They are found localized in the GEMINI OF COILED BODIES and in the CYTOPLASM. The SMN complex is named after the Survival of Motor Neuron Complex Protein 1, which is a critical component of the complex.
Enzymes are proteins that catalyze (i.e., increase the rates of) chemical reactions. In enzymatic reactions, the molecules at the beginning of the process, called substrates, are converted into different molecules, called products. Almost all chemical re...