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G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) contain highly hydrophobic domains that are subject to aggregation when exposed to the crowded environment of the cytoplasm. Many events can lead to protein aggregation such as mutations, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and misfolding. These processes have been widely known to impact GPCR folding, maturation, and localization. Protein aggregates are transported toward the microtubule-organizing center via dynein to form a large juxta-nuclear structure called the aggresome, and in due course, are then targeted for degradation. Here, we describe a method to study aggregation of GPCRs by fluorescence microscopy.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.)
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Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Fluorescence microscopy utilizing multiple low-energy photons to produce the excitation event of the fluorophore. Multiphoton microscopes have a simplified optical path in the emission side due to the lack of an emission pinhole, which is necessary with normal confocal microscopes. Ultimately this allows spatial isolation of the excitation event, enabling deeper imaging into optically thick tissue, while restricting photobleaching and phototoxicity to the area being imaged.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.
Non-visual system arrestins that negatively regulate G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS (GPCRs) and may also function independently of GPCR signaling. They bind and recruit many different signaling factors, including MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; SRC-FAMILY-KINASES; and FILAMIN to GPCRs and may recognize different phosphorylation states of the receptors to determine the specificity of the cellular response to signaling.