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The aim of this study was to reveal the biological activities and in vivo toxicity profiles of n-hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts of brown algae Halopteris scoparia L. Sauvageau. In this study, extracts were tested for their phytochemical contents and antioxidant activities. The cytotoxic activities of the extracts against cervical adenocarcinoma (HeLa), colon colorectal adenocarcinoma (CaCo-2) and breast adenocarcinoma (MCF7) cells were assessed by MTT assay and total RNAs derived from cell lines to analyze gene expression were analyzed by Real Time Ready Human Apoptosis Panel 96. Also, in vivo toxicity and irritation effects of extracts were evaluated by LD acute toxicity test and Hen's egg test chorioallantoic membrane (HET-CAM) assay, respectively. Our results showed that the phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined only in methanol extract (33.20 ± 1.41 mg GAE/g and 1.26 ± 0.95 mg QE/g). Also, n-hexane has a broader spectrum of content than methanol and chloroform extracts. Furthermore, n-hexane extract in DPPH and methanol extract in ABTS exhibited the best antioxidant activity. In addition, MTT results revealed that each three extracts cause a significant reduction in cell viability, especially in HeLa cells. When the apoptotic gene expressions were examined after treatment of extracts, the expression of many pro-apoptotic genes in both caspase-independent and caspase-dependent intrinsic and extrinsic pathways increased. These findings suggest that, considering that it had not led to irritation and toxicity in vivo, edible H. scoparia is a natural antioxidant and its apoptotic/cytotoxic activities can potentially be used against human cancers.
This article was published in the following journal.
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Microscopic fresh water algae in the family Chrysophyceae. They share many features with the BROWN ALGAE but are planktonic rather than benthic. Though most are photosynthetic, they are not considered truly autotrophic since they can become facultatively heterotrophic in the absence of adequate light. In this state they can feed on BACTERIA or DIATOMS.
Algae of the division Rhodophyta, in which the red pigment (PHYCOERYTHRIN) predominates. However if this pigment is destroyed, the algae can appear purple, brown, green, or yellow. Two important substances found in the cell walls of red algae are AGAR and CARRAGEENAN. Red algae are thought to be closely related to the prokaryotic CYANOBACTERIA.
Tumor necrosis factor receptor family members that are widely expressed and play a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. The receptors are specific for TNF-RELATED APOPTOSIS-INDUCING LIGAND and signal via conserved death domains that associate with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
A transmembrane-protein belonging to the TNF family of intercellular signaling proteins. It is a widely expressed ligand that activates APOPTOSIS by binding to TNF-RELATED APOPTOSIS-INDUCING LIGAND RECEPTORS. The membrane-bound form of the protein can be cleaved by specific CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES to form a soluble ligand form.
Predominantly marine algae of the division Phaeophyta, having CHROMATOPHORES containing carotenoid PIGMENTS, BIOLOGICAL. ALGINATES and phlorotannins occur widely in all major orders. They are considered the most highly evolved algae because of their well-developed multicellular organization and structural complexity.
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