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Necrotizing Enterocolitis, Gut Microbiota, and Brain Development: Role of the Brain-Gut Axis.

08:00 EDT 11th April 2019 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Necrotizing Enterocolitis, Gut Microbiota, and Brain Development: Role of the Brain-Gut Axis."

Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a relatively common disease in very-low-birth-weight infants and is associated with high mortality and morbidity. In survivors, neurodevelopmental impairment is frequently seen. The exact etiology remains largely to be elucidated, but microbiota are considered to play a major role in the development of NEC. Furthermore, emerging evidence exists that the microbiota is also of importance in brain function and development. Therefore, microbiota characterization has not only potential as a diagnostic or even preventive tool to predict NEC, but may also serve as a biomarker to monitor and possibly even as a target to manipulate brain development. Analysis of fecal volatile organic compounds, which shape the volatile metabolome and reflect microbiota function and host interaction, has been shown to be of interest in the diagnosis of NEC and late-onset sepsis. In this review, we discuss evidence of the role of the complex interplay between microbiota, NEC, and brain development, including the brain-gut axis in preterm infants.

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This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Neonatology
ISSN: 1661-7819
Pages: 423-431

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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

ENTEROCOLITIS with extensive ulceration (ULCER) and NECROSIS. It is observed primarily in LOW BIRTH WEIGHT INFANT.

Tissue NECROSIS in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Brain infarction is the result of a cascade of events initiated by inadequate blood flow through the brain that is followed by HYPOXIA and HYPOGLYCEMIA in brain tissue. Damage may be temporary, permanent, selective or pan-necrosis.

Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.

Bleeding within the brain as a result of penetrating and nonpenetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. Traumatically induced hemorrhages may occur in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRUM; BRAIN STEM (see BRAIN STEM HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC); and CEREBELLUM.

A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.

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