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The combined effects of pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and Ca/Mg on the dissolution and aggregation kinetics of zero valent copper engineered nanoparticles (Cu ENPs) were investigated. The dissolution and aggregation of the particles were studied in (a) synthetic aqueous media, similar in chemistry to natural surface waters, and (b) natural surface waters samples, for up to 32 or 24 h. The DOC stabilized the particles and prevented aggregation, and thus increased the available surface area. The higher available surface area in turn accelerated the dissolution of the particles. The presence of Ca/Mg, however, changed the aggregation and the dissolution of the DOC-stabilized particles. The influence of Ca/Mg on DOC-stabilized particles was different at different pH's. In the absence of DOC, 10 mM of Ca/Mg induced charge reversal on the particles and caused particle stability against aggregation. This subsequently increased particles dissolution. The results obtained with regard to dissolution and aggregation of the particles in natural surface waters were compared with those determined for the synthetic waters. This comparison showed that the behavior of the particles in the natural surface waters was mostly similar to the behavior determined for media at pH 9. Overall, the current study provides some novel insights into the simultaneous effects of physicochemical parameters of water on particle stability against aggregation and dissolution, and provides data about how the processes of aggregation and dissolution of Cu ENPs interact and jointly determine the overall particle fate.
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Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.
Unstable isotopes of copper that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cu atoms with atomic weights 58-62, 64, and 66-68 are radioactive copper isotopes.
P-type ATPases which transport copper ions across membranes in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. They possess a conserved CYSTEINE-HISTIDINE-SERINE (CPx) amino acid motif within their transmembrane helices that functions in cation translocation and catalytic activation, and an N-terminal copper-binding CxxC motif that regulates enzyme activity. They play essential roles in intracellular copper homeostasis through regulating the uptake, efflux and storage of copper ions, and in cuproprotein biosynthesis.
Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.
A layer of protein coating adsorbed by NANOPARTICLES upon entry into PLASMA or other protein-containing biological fluids, which affects how nanoparticles are internalized by cells and cleared from the body.