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FoxO has been proposed to play a role in the promotion of insulin resistance, and inflammation. FoxO is a pro-inflammatory transcription factor that is a key mediator of generation of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β in the liver. However, the detailed association of FoxO6 with insulin resistance and age-related inflammation has not been fully documented. Here, we showed that FoxO6 was elevated in the livers of aging rats and obese mice that exhibited insulin resistance. In addition, virus-mediated FoxO6 activation led to insulin resistance in mice with a notable increase in PAR2 and inflammatory signaling in the liver. On the other hand, FoxO6-KO mice showed reduced PAR2 signaling with a decrease in inflammatory cytokine expression and elevated insulin signaling. Because FoxO6 is closely associated with abnormal production of IL-1β in the liver, we focused on the FoxO6/IL-1β/PAR2 axis to further examine mechanisms underlying FoxO6-mediated insulin resistance and inflammation in the liver. In vitro experiments showed that FoxO6 directly binds to and elevates IL-1β expression. In turn, IL-1β treatment elevated the protein levels of PAR2 with a significant decrease in hepatic insulin signaling, whereas PAR2-siRNA treatment abolished these effects. However, PAR2-siRNA treatment had no effect on IL-1β expression induced by FoxO6, indicating that IL-1β may not be downstream of PAR2. Taken together, we assume that FoxO6-mediated IL-1β is involved in hepatic inflammation and insulin resistance via TF/PAR2 pathway in the liver.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Redox biology
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A syndrome with excessively high INSULIN levels in the BLOOD. It may cause HYPOGLYCEMIA. Etiology of hyperinsulinism varies, including hypersecretion of a beta cell tumor (INSULINOMA); autoantibodies against insulin (INSULIN ANTIBODIES); defective insulin receptor (INSULIN RESISTANCE); or overuse of exogenous insulin or HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS.
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