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Zika virus (ZIKV), a vector-borne infectious agent that has recently been associated with neurological diseases and congenital microcephaly, was first reported in the Western hemisphere in early 2015. A number of authors have reconstructed its epidemiological history using advanced phylogenetic approaches, and the majority of Zika phylogeography studies have used discrete diffusion models. Continuous space diffusion models make it possible to infer the possible origin of the virus in real space by reconstructing its ancestral location on the basis of geographical coordinates deduced from the latitude and longitude of the sampling locations. We analysed all the ZIKV complete genome isolates whose sampling times and localities were available in public databases at the time the study began, using a Bayesian approach for discrete and continuous phylogeographic reconstruction. The discrete phylogeographic analysis suggested that ZIKV emerged to become endemic/epidemic in the first decade of the 1900s in the Ugandan rainforests, and then reached Western Africa and Asia between the 1930s and 1950s. After a long period of about 40 years, it spread to the Pacific islands and reached Brazil from French Polynesia. Continuous phylogeography of the American epidemic showed that the virus entered in north-eastern Brazil in late 2012 and started to spread in early 2013 from two high probability regions: one corresponding to the entire north-east Brazil and the second surrounding the city of Rio de Janeiro, in a mainly northwesterly direction to Central America, the north-western countries of south America and the Caribbean islands. Our data suggest its cryptic circulation in both French Polynesia and Brazil, thus raising questions about the mechanisms underlying its undetected persistence in the absence of a known animal reservoir, and underline the importance of continuous diffusion models in making more reliable phylogeographic reconstructions of emerging viruses.
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The risk of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during pregnancy depends on the incidence of the disease, which is highly variable in different affected geographic areas (
Little is known about the historical and current risk of Zika virus infection in southeast Asia, where the mosquito vector is widespread and other arboviruses circulate endemically. Centralised Zika v...
Outbreaks of mosquito-borne viral illnesses commonly occur after storms. As storms are predicted to worsen in intensity and frequency, mosquito-borne viruses, including the Zika virus are expected to ...
Seventy years after its discovery, the zika virus emerged in Brazil and spread rapidly throughout the Americas, bringing unusual complications such as microcephaly. The World Health Organization class...
Zika virus is a mosquito-borne virus that causes congenital Zika syndrome, characterized by microcephaly and other fetal brain anomalies. This case report presents a case of Zika virus-related fetal b...
In this prospective observational study the investigators will report on 20 male subjects with proven WHO-classification Zika infection. These subjects will be followed up for a maximum of...
The purpose of this study is to determine whether any diagnostic patterns exist in the symptom presentation of Zika Virus.
Currently, there are no licensed therapeutics against Zika virus infection. Due to this unmet medical need, Zika Virus Immune Globulin (ZIKV-IG) is being developed as a therapeutic interve...
The clinical trial will assess the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of GLS-5700. GLS-5700 is a synthetic DNA plasmid vaccine against the Zika virus. ZIKA-001 is the first in man cl...
The clinical trial will assess the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of GLS-5700. GLS-5700 is a synthetic DNA plasmid vaccine against the Zika virus. This is a Phase 1 clinical tria...
An arbovirus in the FLAVIVIRUS genus of the family FLAVIVIRIDAE. Originally isolated in the Zika Forest of UGANDA it has been introduced to Asia and the Americas.
A viral disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with ZIKA VIRUS. Its mild DENGUE-like symptoms include fever, rash, headaches and ARTHRALGIA. The viral infection during pregnancy, however, may be associated with other neurological and autoimmune complications (e.g., GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME; and MICROCEPHALY).
A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)
A family of hepatotropic DNA viruses which contains double-stranded DNA genomes and causes hepatitis in humans and animals. There are two genera: AVIHEPADNAVIRUS and ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS. Hepadnaviruses include HEPATITIS B VIRUS, duck hepatitis B virus (HEPATITIS B VIRUS, DUCK), heron hepatitis B virus, ground squirrel hepatitis virus, and woodchuck hepatitis B virus (HEPATITIS B VIRUS, WOODCHUCK).
Bacteria that can survive and grow in the complete, or nearly complete absence of oxygen.
Antiretroviral Therapy Clostridium Difficile Ebola HIV & AIDS Infectious Diseases Influenza Malaria Measles Sepsis Swine Flu Tropical Medicine Tuberculosis Infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic...
Congenital conditions are those which are present from birth. They include structural deformities or loss of function in organs such as the <!--LGfEGNT2Lhm-->heart, gut or skeletal system. They can be corrected by <!--LGfEGNT2Lhm-->surgery, m...
Bioinformatics is the application of computer software and hardware to the management of biological data to create useful information. Computers are used to gather, store, analyze and integrate biological and genetic information which can then be applied...