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Droplet volume and temperature affect contact angle significantly. Phase change heat transfer processes of nanofluids - suspensions containing nanometre-sized particles - can only be modelled properly by understanding these effects. The approach proposed here considers the limiting contact angle of a droplet asymptotically approaching zero-volume as a thermophysical property to characterise nanofluids positioned on a certain substrate under a certain atmosphere. Graphene oxide, alumina, and gold nanoparticles are suspended in deionised water. Within the framework of a round robin test carried out by nine independent European institutes the contact angle of these suspensions on a stainless steel solid substrate is measured with high accuracy. No dependence of nanofluids contact angle of sessile droplets on the measurement device is found. However, the measurements reveal clear differences of the contact angle of nanofluids compared to the pure base fluid. Physically founded correlations of the contact angle in dependency of droplet temperature and volume are obtained from the data. Extrapolating these functions to zero droplet volume delivers the searched limiting contact angle depending only on the temperature. It is for the first time, that this specific parameter, is understood as a characteristic material property of nanofluid droplets placed on a certain substrate under a certain atmosphere. Together with the surface tension it provides the foundation of proper modelling phase change heat transfer processes of nanofluids.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of colloid and interface science
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To prove that external contact micropulse diode laser trabeculoplasty (EMDLT) can significantly lower intraocular pressure in cases of advanced open angle glaucoma.
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The purpose of this study is to evaluate visual acuity at distance when wearing DDT2 contact lenses compared to Clariti contact lenses.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate visual acuity at distance when wearing DDT2 contact lenses compared to Acuvue Moist contact lenses.
Examination of the angle of the anterior chamber of the eye with a specialized optical instrument (gonioscope) or a contact prism lens.
Scattering of a beam of electromagnetic or acoustic RADIATION, or particles, at small angles by particles or cavities whose dimensions are many times as large as the wavelength of the radiation or the de Broglie wavelength of the scattered particles. Also know as low angle scattering. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed) Small angle scattering (SAS) techniques, small angle neutron (SANS), X-ray (SAXS), and light (SALS, or just LS) scattering, are used to characterize objects on a nanoscale.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Congenital open-angle glaucoma that results from dysgenesis of the angle structures accompanied by increased intraocular pressure and enlargement of the eye. Treatment is both medical and surgical.
The mechanical property of material that determines its resistance to force. HARDNESS TESTS measure this property.