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To assess the prevalence and molecular characteristics of Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in grazing adult sheep from Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China, 318 fecal samples were collected and screened for the presence of these parasites by polymerase chain reaction. The overall infection rate for the three pathogens was 13.5% (43/318), with observed individual infection rates of 0.9% (3/318), 7.5% (24/318), and 6.3% (20/318) for Cryptosporidium spp., G. duodenalis, and E. bieneusi, respectively. Three Cryptosporidium species were identified amongst the samples, including C. xiaoi (n = 1), C. ubiquitum (n = 1), and C. parvum (n = 1), with gp60-based subtyping analysis identifying C. parvum as subtype IIdA15G1 and C. ubiquitum as subtype XIIa. Eight E. bieneusi genotypes were identified based on internal transcribed spacer region sequencing, including six known (BEB6, CHG1, CHG3, CHS3, CHS8, and COS-I) and two novel (designated XJS1 and XJS2) genotypes. All G. duodenalis-positive samples were identified as assemblage E based on small subunit rRNA (n = 24) and gdh (n = 10) gene sequence analysis. These data support the occurrence of host adaptation by Cryptosporidium spp., G. duodenalis, and E. bieneusi in sheep, and the zoonotic risk may posed by these parasites in Xinjiang, China.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Parasitology international
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A genus of parasitic FUNGI in the family Enterocytozoonidae, which infects humans. Enterocytozoon bieneusi has been found in the intestines of patients with AIDS.
The probability distribution associated with two mutually exclusive outcomes; used to model cumulative incidence rates and prevalence rates. The Bernoulli distribution is a special case of binomial distribution.
A distribution function used to describe the occurrence of rare events or to describe the sampling distribution of isolated counts in a continuum of time or space.
A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.
Continuous frequency distribution of infinite range. Its properties are as follows: 1, continuous, symmetrical distribution with both tails extending to infinity; 2, arithmetic mean, mode, and median identical; and 3, shape completely determined by the mean and standard deviation.
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) uses the ability of DNA polymerase (enzymes that create DNA molecules by assembling nucleotides, the building blocks of DNA. These enzymes are essential to DNA replication and usually work in pairs to create two ident...
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DNA sequencing is the process of determining the precise order of nucleotides within a DNA molecule. During DNA sequencing, the bases of a small fragment of DNA are sequentially identified from signals emitted as each fragment is re-synthesized from a ...