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Juga is a genus of freshwater gastropods distributed in Pacific and Interior drainages of the Pacific Northwest from central California to northern Washington. The current classification has relied heavily on features of the shell, which vary within and across drainages, and often intergrade without sharp distinctions between species. The only previous molecular analysis included limited population sampling, which did not allow robust assessment of intra- versus interspecific levels of genetic diversity, and concluded almost every sampled population to be a distinct OTU. We assembled a multilocus mitochondrial (COI, 16S) and nuclear gene (ITS1) dataset for ∼100 populations collected across the range of the genus. We generated primary species hypotheses using ABGD with best-fit model-corrected distances and further explored our data, both individual gene partitions and concatenated datasets, using a diversity of phylogenetic and species delimitation methods (Bayesian inference, maximum likelihood estimation, StarBEAST2, bGMYC, bPTP, BP&P). Our secondary species delimitation hypotheses, based primarily on the criterion of reciprocal monophyly, and informed by a combination of geography and morphology, supports the interpretation that Juga comprises a mixture of geographically widespread species and narrow range endemics. As might be expected in taxa with low vagility and poor dispersal capacities, analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed highly structured populations with up to 80% of the observed genetic variance explained by variation between populations. Analyses with bGMYC, bPTP, and BP&P appeared sensitive to this genetic structure and returned highly dissected species hypotheses that are likely oversplit. The species diversity of Juga is concluded to be lower than presently recognized, and the systematics to require extensive revision. Features of the teleoconch considered significant in species-level and subgeneric classification were found to be variable within some species, sometimes at a single site. Of a number of potentially new species identified in non-peer reviewed reports and field guides, only one was supported as a distinct OTU.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Molecular phylogenetics and evolution
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Individual members of North American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia.
Classification system for assessing impact injury severity developed and published by the American Association for Automotive Medicine. It is the system of choice for coding single injuries and is the foundation for methods assessing multiple injuries or for assessing cumulative effects of more than one injury. These include Maximum AIS (MAIS), Injury Severity Score (ISS), and Probability of Death Score (PODS).
A geographical area of the United States with no definite boundaries but comprising northeastern Alabama, northwestern Georgia, northwestern South Carolina, western North Carolina, eastern Kentucky, eastern Tennessee, western Virginia, West Virginia, western Maryland, southwestern Pennsylvania, southern Ohio, and southern New York.
A pattern of food consumption adopted mainly by the people of North America and Western Europe. It is mainly characterized by high intake of MEAT, processed grains, DIETARY SUGARS, DAIRY PRODUCTS, and DIETARY FATS.
The largest family of snakes, comprising five subfamilies: Colubrinae, Natricinae, Homalopsinae, Lycodontinae, and Xenodontinae. They show a great diversity of eating habits, some eating almost anything, others having a specialized diet. They can be oviparous, ovoviviparous, or viviparous. The majority of North American snakes are colubrines. Among the colubrids are king snakes, water moccasins, water snakes, and garter snakes. Some genera are poisonous. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, pp321-29)
Bioinformatics is the application of computer software and hardware to the management of biological data to create useful information. Computers are used to gather, store, analyze and integrate biological and genetic information which can then be applied...