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The simultaneous intake of food and drugs can have a strong impact on drug release, absorption, distribution, metabolism and/or elimination and consequently, on the efficacy and safety of pharmacotherapy. As such, food-drug interactions are one of the main challenges in oral drug administration. Whereas pharmacokinetic (PK) food-drug interactions can have a variety of causes, pharmacodynamic (PD) food-drug interactions occur due to specific pharmacological interactions between a drug and particular drinks or food. In recent years, extensive efforts were made to elucidate the mechanisms that drive pharmacokinetic food-drug interactions. Their occurrence depends mainly on the properties of the drug substance, the formulation and a multitude of physiological factors. Every intake of food or drink changes the physiological conditions in the human gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, a precise understanding of how different foods and drinks affect the processes of drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and/or elimination as well as formulation performance is important in order to be able to predict and avoid such interactions. Furthermore, it must be considered that beverages such as milk, grapefruit juice and alcohol can also lead to specific food-drug interactions. In this regard, the growing use of food supplements and functional food requires urgent attention in oral pharmacotherapy. Recently, a new consortium in Understanding Gastrointestinal Absorption-related Processes (UNGAP) was established through COST, a funding organisation of the European Union supporting translational research across Europe. In this review of the UNGAP Working group "Food-Drug Interface", the different mechanisms that can lead to pharmacokinetic food-drug interactions are discussed and summarised from different expert perspectives.
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Specific effects of drugs and substances on metabolic pathways such as those occurring through the CYTOCHROME P-450 ENZYME SYSTEM. These include effects that often result in DRUG INTERACTIONS; FOOD-DRUG INTERACTIONS; and HERB-DRUG INTERACTIONS.
The pharmacological result, either desirable or undesirable, of drugs interacting with components of the diet. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
The properties and processes of drug metabolism and drug interactions.
Disorders that result from the intended use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS. Included in this heading are a broad variety of chemically-induced adverse conditions due to toxicity, DRUG INTERACTIONS, and metabolic effects of pharmaceuticals.
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