Zebrafish otolith biomineralization requires polyketide synthase.

08:00 EDT 8th April 2019 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Zebrafish otolith biomineralization requires polyketide synthase."

Deflecting biomineralized crystals attached to vestibular hair cells are necessary for maintaining balance. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are useful organisms to study these biomineralized crystals called otoliths, as many required genes are homologous to human otoconial development. We sought to identify and characterize the causative gene in a trio of homozygous recessive mutants, no content (nco) and corkscrew (csr), and vanished (vns), which fail to develop otoliths during early ear development. We show that nco, csr, and vns have potentially deleterious mutations in polyketide synthase (pks1), a multi-modular protein that has been previously implicated in biomineralization events in chordates and echinoderms. We found that Otoconin-90 (Oc90) expression within the otocyst is diffuse in nco and csr; therefore, it is not sufficient for otolith biomineralization in zebrafish. Similarly, normal localization of Otogelin, a protein required for otolith tethering in the otolithic membrane, is not sufficient for Oc90 attachment. Furthermore, eNOS signaling and Endothelin-1 signaling were the most up- and down-regulated pathways during otolith agenesis in nco, respectively. Our results demonstrate distinct processes for otolith nucleation and biomineralization in vertebrates and will be a starting point for models that are independent of Oc90-mediated seeding. This study will serve as a basis for investigating the role of eNOS signaling and Endothelin-1 signaling during otolith formation.


Journal Details

This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Mechanisms of development
ISSN: 1872-6356


DeepDyve research library

PubMed Articles [4468 Associated PubMed Articles listed on BioPortfolio]

In vivo and in vitro analysis of starmaker activity in zebrafish otolith biomineralization.

Otoliths are one of the biominerals whose formation is highly controlled by proteins. The first protein discovered to be involved in otolith biomineralization in zebrafish was starmaker (Stm). Previou...

Sequence-based classification of type II polyketide synthase biosynthetic gene clusters for antiSMASH.

The software antiSMASH examines microbial genome data to identify and analyze biosynthetic gene clusters for a wide range of natural products. So far, type II polyketide synthase (PKS) gene clusters c...

Proposal on the Diagnostic Criteria of Definite Isolated Otolith Dysfunction.

: Dizzy patients with abnormal otolith function tests, despite a normal caloric response, are defined as having specific (isolated) otolith organ dysfunction. This study was performed to compare the d...

Biosynthesis of Diphenyl Ethers in Fungi.

A new and concise biosynthetic pathway of fungal diphenyl ethers (DPEs) has been elucidated and efficiently reconstructed in yeast. The pathway includes an unusual nonreducing polyketide synthase (NRP...

Exploring the Promiscuous Enzymatic Activation of Non-natural Polyketide Extender Units In Vitro and In Vivo for Monensin Biosynthesis.

The incorporation of new-to-nature extender units into polyketide synthesis harbours an important source for diversity yet is restricted by a limited availability of suitably activated building blocks...

Clinical Trials [870 Associated Clinical Trials listed on BioPortfolio]

Xenotransplantation of Primary Cancer Samples in Zebrafish Embryos

The study consists in a co-clinical trial by using zebrafish embryos. Specifically, an observational prospective clinical trial on patients operated of epato-biliar-pancreatic cancers and ...

Vestibular Rehabilitation and Otolith Dysfunction

Recent studies suggest that otolith dysfunction is a common finding in individuals with a history of head trauma/blast exposure and/or noise-induced hearing loss. Therefore, otolith dysfun...

Interaction of Otolith Stimulation and Carotid Baroreflex in Humans

It is well documented that a few days stay in space induces a change in the vestibular-ocular reflex reflecting a reinterpretation of sensory inputs following the disappearance of gravity....

Cortisone and QTc-Interval

Scientific and clinical data report about shortening of QTc-interval in patients treated with cortisone. Peal et al. analyzed chemical suppression of long QT syndrome (Type 2) in an in viv...

Natural History Study of Cystathionine Beta-synthase Deficiency Homocystinuria (CBSDH)

The purpose of the study is to characterize the clinical course of Cystathionine Beta-synthase Deficiency Homocystinuria (CBSDH) in pediatric and adult patients under current clinical mana...

Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).

An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phosphorylated, inactive glycogen synthase D to active dephosphoglycogen synthase I. EC

A class of protein-serine-threonine kinases that was originally found as one of the three types of kinases that phosphorylate GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE. Glycogen synthase kinases along with CA(2+)-CALMODULIN DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES and CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES regulate glycogen synthase activity.

Large enzyme complexes composed of a number of component enzymes that are found in STREPTOMYCES which biosynthesize MACROLIDES and other polyketides.

The A protein of the lactose synthase complex. In the presence of the B protein (LACTALBUMIN) specificity is changed from N-acetylglucosamine to glucose. EC

Quick Search


DeepDyve research library

Relevant Topics

Bioinformatics is the application of computer software and hardware to the management of biological data to create useful information. Computers are used to gather, store, analyze and integrate biological and genetic information which can then be applied...

Within medicine, nutrition (the study of food and the effect of its components on the body) has many different roles. Appropriate nutrition can help prevent certain diseases, or treat others. In critically ill patients, artificial feeding by tubes need t...

Searches Linking to this Article