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Human Salivary Amylase Gene Copy Number Impacts Oral and Gut Microbiomes.

08:00 EDT 10th April 2019 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Human Salivary Amylase Gene Copy Number Impacts Oral and Gut Microbiomes."

Host genetic variation influences microbiome composition. While studies have focused on associations between the gut microbiome and specific alleles, gene copy number (CN) also varies. We relate microbiome diversity to CN variation of the AMY1 locus, which encodes salivary amylase, facilitating starch digestion. After imputing AMY1-CN for ∼1,000 subjects, we identified taxa differentiating fecal microbiomes of high and low AMY1-CN hosts. In a month-long diet intervention study, we show that diet standardization drove gut microbiome convergence, and AMY1-CN correlated with oral and gut microbiome composition and function. The microbiomes of low-AMY1-CN subjects had enhanced capacity to break down complex carbohydrates. High-AMY1-CN subjects had higher levels of salivary Porphyromonas; their gut microbiota had increased abundance of resistant starch-degrading microbes, produced higher levels of short-chain fatty acids, and drove higher adiposity when transferred to germ-free mice. This study establishes AMY1-CN as a genetic factor associated with microbiome composition and function.

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Journal Details

This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Cell host & microbe
ISSN: 1934-6069
Pages: 553-564.e7

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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

Stretches of genomic DNA that exist in different multiples between individuals. Many copy number variations have been associated with susceptibility or resistance to disease.

A copy number variation that results in reduced GENE DOSAGE due to any loss-of-function mutation. The loss of heterozygosity is associated with abnormal phenotypes or diseased states because the remaining gene is insufficient.

A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.

The discharge of substances from the blood supply via diffusion into the SALIVA from the ORAL MUCOSA or from the SALIVARY GLANDS.

A subclass of alpha-amylase ISOENZYMES that are secreted into SALIVA.

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