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To study the epigenetic gene silencing, yeast is an excellent model organism. Sir proteins are required for the formation of silent heterochromatin. Sir2 couples histone deacetylation and NAD hydrolysis to generate an endogenous epigenetic metabolic small molecule, O-acetyl-ADP-ribose (AAR). AAR is involved in the conformational change of SIR complexes, modulates the formation of SIR-nucleosome pre-heterochromatin and contribute to the spreading of SIR complexes along the chromatin fiber to form extended silent heterochromatin regions. Here, we demonstrate that AAR is capable of enhancing the chromatin silencing effect under either an extra exogenous AAR, or a defect AAR metabolic enzyme situation, but decreasing the chromatin silencing effect under a defect AAR synthetic enzyme state. Our results provide an evidence of biological function importance of AAR. It is indicated that AAR does not only function in vitro but also plays a role in vivo to increase the effect of heterochromatin epigenetic gene silencing. However, further investigations of AAR are warranted to expand our knowledge of epigenetics and associated small molecules. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Genes to cells : devoted to molecular & cellular mechanisms
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A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS from SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. It is involved in morphological events related to the cell cycle. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 184.108.40.206.
An acetyl ester of ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE formed during NAD-dependent deacetylation of proteins by SIRTUINS. The acetate group resides on the ribose ring where nicotinamide was cleaved from NAD during the reaction. Several isomers of O-acetyl-ADP-ribose have been isolated from the reaction.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
A homologous family of regulatory enzymes that are structurally related to the protein silent mating type information regulator 2 (Sir2) found in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Sirtuins contain a central catalytic core region which binds NAD. Several of the sirtuins utilize NAD to deacetylate proteins such as HISTONES and are categorized as GROUP III HISTONE DEACETYLASES. Several other sirtuin members utilize NAD to transfer ADP-RIBOSE to proteins and are categorized as MONO ADP-RIBOSE TRANSFERASES, while a third group of sirtuins appears to have both deacetylase and ADP ribose transferase activities.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
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