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Macroautophagy (hereafter autophagy) is a well-conserved cellular process through which cytoplasmic components are delivered to the vacuole/lysosome for degradation and recycling. Studies have revealed the molecular mechanism of transcriptional regulation of autophagy-related (ATG) genes upon nutrient deprivation. However, little is known about their translational regulation. Here, we found that Dhh1, a DExD/H-box RNA helicase, is required for efficient translation of Atg1 and Atg13, two proteins essential for autophagy induction. Dhh1 directly associates with ATG1 and ATG13 mRNAs under nitrogen-starvation conditions. The structured regions shortly after the start codons of the two ATG mRNAs are necessary for their translational regulation by Dhh1. Both the RNA-binding ability and helicase activity of Dhh1 are indispensable to promote Atg1 translation and autophagy. Moreover, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (EIF4E)-associated protein 1 (Eap1), a target of rapamycin (TOR)-regulated EIF4E binding protein, physically interacts with Dhh1 after nitrogen starvation and facilitates the translation of Atg1 and Atg13. These results suggest a model for how some ATG genes bypass the general translational suppression that occurs during nitrogen starvation to maintain a proper level of autophagy.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PLoS biology
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An autophagy related protein that is similar to UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYME E1. It functions in CYTOPLASM to VACUOLE transport (Cvt) and AUTOPHAGY by activating ATG12 PROTEIN for its conjugation with ATG5 PROTEIN, as well as the conjugation of ATG8 FAMILY PROTEINS with phosphatidylethanolamine for ATG8 association to Cvt vesicles and AUTOPHAGOSOME membranes. It is also required for the nitrogen starvation response in yeast, MITOPHAGY; and autophagic cell death induced by CASPASE 8 inhibition.
An autophagy-related protein that functions in AUTOPHAGOSOME biogenesis. It is conjugated to the ATG12 PROTEIN via a process that is similar to UBIQUITINATION and involves the ATG7 PROTEIN and ATG10 enzyme. The ATG12-ATG5 conjugate acts as an E3 UBIQUITIN LIGASE-like enzyme and is required for the localization of ATG8 PROTEINS to AUTOPHAGOSOME vesicle membranes and modification of membrane lipids.
A serine/threonine-protein kinase that functions in AUTOPHAGY in response to starvation. It acts on the PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL 3-KINASE complex PIK3C3 to regulate AUTOPHAGOSOME formation. It also functions as both a downstream effector and negative regulator of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and is activated by AMPK, which it also negatively regulates.
An autophagy related protein which functions as a core subunit of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL 3-KINASE MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES. It mediates the formation of phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate and functions in AUTOPHAGY, where it is required for maturation of the AUTOPHAGOSOME. It also functions in ENDOCYTOSIS and CYTOKINESIS as part of a separate complex. Beclin-1 associates with INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES and interacts with the PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-BCL-2 and BCL-X PROTEIN.
Proteins and enzymes that function, often as components of MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES, to assemble AUTOPHAGOSOMES and carry out AUTOPHAGY.
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