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Endoplasmic reticulum-associated SKN-1A/Nrf1 mediates a cytoplasmic unfolded protein response and promotes longevity.

08:00 EDT 11th April 2019 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Endoplasmic reticulum-associated SKN-1A/Nrf1 mediates a cytoplasmic unfolded protein response and promotes longevity."

Unfolded protein responses (UPRs) safeguard cellular function during proteotoxic stress and aging. In a previous paper (Lehrbach and Ruvkun, 2016) we showed that the ER-associated SKN-1A/Nrf1 transcription factor activates proteasome subunit expression in response to proteasome dysfunction, but it was not established whether SKN-1A/Nrf1 adjusts proteasome capacity in response to other proteotoxic insults. Here, we reveal that misfolded endogenous proteins and the human amyloid beta peptide trigger activation of proteasome subunit expression by SKN-1A/Nrf1. SKN-1A activation is protective against age-dependent defects caused by accumulation of misfolded and aggregation-prone proteins. In a Alzheimer's disease model, SKN-1A/Nrf1 slows accumulation of the amyloid beta peptide and delays adult-onset cellular dysfunction. Our results indicate that SKN-1A surveys cellular protein folding and adjusts proteasome capacity to meet the demands of protein quality control pathways, revealing a new arm of the cytosolic UPR. This regulatory axis is critical for healthy aging and may be a target for therapeutic modulation of human aging and age-related disease.

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This article was published in the following journal.

Name: eLife
ISSN: 2050-084X
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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

A cellular response to environmental insults that cause disruptions in PROTEIN FOLDING and/or accumulation of defectively folded protein in the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. It consists of a group of regulatory cascades that are triggered as a response to altered levels of calcium and/or the redox state of the endoplasmic reticulum. Persistent activation of the unfolded protein response leads to the induction of APOPTOSIS.

Various physiological or molecular disturbances that impair ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM function. It triggers many responses, including UNFOLDED PROTEIN RESPONSE, which may lead to APOPTOSIS; and AUTOPHAGY.

One of the BASIC-LEUCINE ZIPPER TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that is synthesized as a membrane-bound protein in the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. In response to endoplasmic reticulum stress it translocates to the GOLGI APPARATUS. It is activated by PROTEASES and then moves to the CELL NUCLEUS to regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in the unfolded protein response.

A type of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where polyribosomes are present on the cytoplasmic surfaces of the ER membranes. This form of ER is prominent in cells specialized for protein secretion and its principal function is to segregate proteins destined for export or intracellular utilization.

A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)

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