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Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is characterized by the TGF-β-dependent differentiation of lung fibroblasts into myofibroblasts, leading to excessive deposition of extracellular matrix proteins, which distort lung architecture and function. Metabolic reprogramming in myofibroblasts is emerging as an important mechanism in the pathogenesis IPF and recent evidence suggests that glutamine metabolism is required in myofibroblasts although the exact role of glutamine in myofibroblasts is unclear. Here we demonstrate that glutamine, and its conversion to glutamate by glutaminase is required for TGF-β-induced collagen protein production in lung fibroblasts. We found that metabolism of glutamate to α-ketoglutarate by glutamate dehydrogenase or the glutamate-pyruvate or glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminases are not required for collagen protein production. Instead, we discovered that the glutamate-consuming enzymes phosphoserine aminotransferase 1 (PSAT1) and aldehyde dehydrogenase 18A1 (ALDH18A1)/ Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS) are required for collagen protein production by lung fibroblasts. PSAT1 is required for de novo glycine production while ALDH18A1/P5CS is required for de novo proline production. Consistent with this, we found that TGF-β treatment increased cellular levels of glycine and proline in lung fibroblasts. Our results suggest that glutamine metabolism is required to promote amino acid biosynthesis and not to provide intermediates such as α-ketoglutarate for oxidation in mitochondria. In support of this, we found that inhibition of glutaminolysis has no effect on cellular oxygen consumption and that knockdown of oxoglutarate dehydrogenase has no effect on the ability to produce collagen protein. Our results suggest that amino acid biosynthesis pathways may represent novel therapeutic targets for treatment of fibrotic diseases, including IPF.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: American journal of respiratory cell and molecular biology
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Insulin-like polypeptides made by the liver and some fibroblasts and released into the blood when stimulated by SOMATOTROPIN. They cause sulfate incorporation into collagen, RNA, and DNA synthesis, which are prerequisites to cell division and growth of the organism.
A process in which normal lung tissues are progressively replaced by FIBROBLASTS and COLLAGEN causing an irreversible loss of the ability to transfer oxygen into the bloodstream via PULMONARY ALVEOLI. Patients show progressive DYSPNEA finally resulting in death.
An integrin found on fibroblasts, platelets, endothelial and epithelial cells, and lymphocytes where it functions as a receptor for COLLAGEN and LAMININ. Although originally referred to as the collagen receptor, it is one of several receptors for collagen. Ligand binding to integrin alpha2beta1 triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling, including activation of p38 MAP kinase.
An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of fructose-6-phosphate plus GLUTAMINE from GLUTAMATE plus glucosamine-6-phosphate.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying glutamine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
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Pulmonary relating to or associated with the lungs eg Asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, COPD, Cystic Fibrosis, Influenza, Lung Cancer, Pneumonia, Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension, Sleep Disorders etc Follow and track Lung Cancer News ...