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New proteins can evolve by duplication and divergence or de novo, from previously non-coding DNA. A recently observed mechanism is for peptides to evolve within a 'host' protein and emerge by proteolytic processing. The first examples of such interstitial peptides were ones hosted by precursors for seed storage albumin. Interstitial peptides have also been observed in precursors for seed vicilins, but current evidence for vicilin-buried peptides (VBPs) is limited to seeds of the broadleaf plants pumpkin and macadamia. Here, an extensive sequence analysis of vicilin precursors suggested that peptides buried within the N-terminal region of preprovicilins are widespread and truly ancient. Gene sequences indicative of interstitial peptides were found in species from Amborellales to eudicots and include important grass and legume crop species. We show the first protein evidence for a monocot VBP in date palm seeds as well as protein evidence from other crops including the common tomato, sesame and pumpkin relatives, cucumber and the sponge loofah (Luffa aegyptiaca). Their excision was consistent with asparaginyl endopeptidase-mediated maturation and sequences were confirmed by tandem mass spectrometry. Our findings suggest the family is large and ancient and, that based on the NMR solution structures for loofah Luffin P1 and tomato VBP-8, VBPs adopt a helical hairpin fold stapled by two internal disulfide bonds. The first VBPs characterized were a protease inhibitor, anti-microbials, and a ribosome inactivator. The age and evolutionary retention of this peptide family suggests its members play important roles in plant biology.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: ACS chemical biology
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Comparing the rate of complications between buried and exposed intramedullary implants after fixation of pediatric forearm fractures.
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Proteolytic enzymes that are involved in the conversion of protein precursors such as peptide prohormones into PEPTIDE HORMONES. Some are ENDOPEPTIDASES, some are EXOPEPTIDASES.
Location where dead bodies are kept until they are buried or cremated.
DNA isolated from fossils or other ancient specimens.
Geographical sites known to be extant in a remote period in the history of civilization, familiar as the names of ancient countries and empires.
A civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in the area of Egypt. It was active from 3100 B.C. until its conquest by Alexander the Great in 332 B.C.
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