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Thyroid cancer is mostly an ERK-driven carcinoma, as up to 70% of thyroid carcinomas are caused by mutations that activate the RAS/ERK mitogenic signaling pathway. The incidence of thyroid cancer has been steadily increasing for the last four decades, yet there is still no effective treatment for advanced thyroid carcinomas. Current research efforts are focused on impairing ERK signaling with small molecule inhibitors, mainly at the level of BRAF and MEK. However, despite initial promising results in animal models, the clinical success of these inhibitors has been limited by the emergence of tumor resistance and relapse. The RAS/ERK pathway is an extremely complex signaling cascade with multiple points of control, offering many potential therapeutic targets: from the modulatory proteins regulating the activation state of RAS proteins, to the scaffolding proteins of the pathway that provide spatial specificity to the signals, and finally the negative feedbacks and phosphatases responsible for inactivating the pathway. The aim of this review is to give an overview of the biology of RAS/ERK regulators in human cancer highlighting relevant information on thyroid cancer and future areas of research.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Endocrine-related cancer
c-Myc is overexpressed in different types of cancer including thyroid cancer, and is considered undruggable over the decades. There is evidence showing that MLN8237, a kind of Aurora A kinase (AURKA) ...
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ID genes have an important function in the cell cycle, and ID proteins may help identify aggressive tumors, besides being considered promising therapeutic targets. However, their role in thyroid tumor...
Although thyroid cancers are low-grade endocrine malignancy, most patients usually received thyroidectomy with ablative radioactive iodine therapy. Such patients were followed with thyroid...
To investigate the genetic mutations of patients with thyroid carcinoma and find molecular targets for therapy.
RATIONALE: Gathering information about patients with thyroid cancer or thyroid nodules may help the study of thyroid cancer in the future. PURPOSE: This study is gathering information and...
Since thyroid cancer becomes refractory to radioactive iodine, treatment options are very limited. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as sorafenib have recently shown promise. This trial seek...
Participants in this study will be patients diagnosed with or suspected to have a thyroid nodule or thyroid cancer. The main purpose of this study is to further understand the methods for...
An aggressive THYROID GLAND malignancy which generally occurs in IODINE-deficient areas in people with previous thyroid pathology such as GOITER. It is associated with CELL DEDIFFERENTIATION of THYROID CARCINOMA (e.g., FOLLICULAR THYROID CARCINOMA; PAPILLARY THYROID CANCER). Typical initial presentation is a rapidly growing neck mass which upon metastasis is associated with DYSPHAGIA; NECK PAIN; bone pain; DYSPNEA; and NEUROLOGIC DEFICITS.
Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.
A thyroid neoplasm of mixed papillary and follicular arrangement. Its biological behavior and prognosis is the same as that of a papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyroid. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1271)
A hereditary disease characterized by multiple ectodermal, mesodermal, and endodermal nevoid and neoplastic anomalies. Facial trichilemmomas and papillomatous papules of the oral mucosa are the most characteristic lesions. Individuals with this syndrome have a high risk of BREAST CANCER; THYROID CANCER; and ENDOMETRIAL CANCER. This syndrome is associated with mutations in the gene for PTEN PHOSPHATASE.
Autoantibodies that bind to the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor (RECEPTORS, THYROTROPIN) on thyroid epithelial cells. The autoantibodies mimic TSH causing an unregulated production of thyroid hormones characteristic of GRAVES DISEASE.
The thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland in the neck, just above thecollarbone and is an endocrine gland that make hormones. These Thyroid hormones control the rate of many activities in the body, including how fast the body burns calories and how fast th...