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Since stormwater runoff from zinc roofs is polluted with high concentrations of zinc (Zn), runoff treatment is recommended in order to avoid harmful influences to the ecosystem. For the retention of Zn, vegetated infiltration swales with a topsoil layer are often used as decentralized Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS). The aim of this study was to assess the risks of groundwater contamination due to infiltration of stormwater runoff of a Zn roof using infiltration swales. The spatial horizontal and vertical distribution of Zn content in four 15 year old vegetated infiltration swales at a zinc roof was analyzed and evaluated. High Zn contents (up to 27.9 g/kg dry mass) have been measured only for spatially limited areas at the inflow zones of each infiltration swale. Zn content decreased significantly with increasing distance from inflow and with increasing topsoil depth. Because the topsoil is still contaminated in deeper layers and because the soil's sorption potential is locally exceeded, the risk of groundwater contamination was expected to be high. Possible optimization of the hydraulic functioning and regular maintenance of the swales is recommended as well as a regular topsoil exchange of highly polluted areas.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: The Science of the total environment
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Methods used to take into account and incorporate spatial autocorrelation and regional variation into regression analysis models of data that has spatial dependency, and also to provide information on the spatial relationships among the variables.
A pathologic change in leukemia in which leukemic cells permeate various organs at any stage of the disease. All types of leukemia show various degrees of infiltration, depending upon the type of leukemia. The degree of infiltration may vary from site to site. The liver and spleen are common sites of infiltration, the greatest appearing in myelocytic leukemia, but infiltration is seen also in the granulocytic and lymphocytic types. The kidney is also a common site and of the gastrointestinal system, the stomach and ileum are commonly involved. In lymphocytic leukemia the skin is often infiltrated. The central nervous system too is a common site.
Integration of spatial information perceived by visual and/or auditory CUES.
A process through which individuals encode information about their environmental CUES to facilitate SPATIAL NAVIGATION.
The probability distribution associated with two mutually exclusive outcomes; used to model cumulative incidence rates and prevalence rates. The Bernoulli distribution is a special case of binomial distribution.
Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for the body. It is usually of plant or animal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, or minerals. The substance is ingested by an organism ...