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Alcohol and peer influence are known to have independent effects on risky decision making. We investigated combined influences of peers and alcohol on functional brain connectivity and behavior. Young adults underwent fMRI while completing response inhibition (Go/No-Go) and risky driving (Stoplight) tasks. Intoxicated participants made more mistakes on Go/No-Go, and showed diminished connectivity between the anterior insular cortex (AIC) and regions implicated in executive function (e.g., dorsal anterior cingulate). During the Stoplight game, peer observation was associated with increased connectivity between the AIC and regions implicated in social cognition (e.g., ventromedial prefrontal cortex). Alcohol and peers also exerted interactive influences, such that some connectivity changes only occurred when participants were observed by peers and under the influence of alcohol. These findings suggest that brain systems underlying decision making function differently under the combined influence of alcohol and peers, and highlight mechanisms through which this combination of factors is particularly risky for youth.
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Substances interfering with the metabolism of ethyl alcohol, causing unpleasant side effects thought to discourage the drinking of alcoholic beverages. Alcohol deterrents are used in the treatment of alcoholism.
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Mechanical ventilation delivered to match the patient's efforts in breathing as detected by the interactive ventilation device.
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Phospholipids which have an alcohol moiety in ethereal linkage with a saturated or unsaturated aliphatic alcohol. They are usually derivatives of phosphoglycerols or phosphatidates. The other two alcohol groups of the glycerol backbone are usually in ester linkage. These compounds are widely distributed in animal tissues.