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The efficacy of transcranial direct current stimulation to prefrontal areas is related to underlying cortical morphology.

08:00 EDT 9th April 2019 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "The efficacy of transcranial direct current stimulation to prefrontal areas is related to underlying cortical morphology."

Applying a weak electrical current to the cortex can have effects on a range of behaviours. Techniques such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) have been widely used in both research and clinical settings. However, there is significant variability across individuals in terms of their responsiveness to stimulation, which poses practical challenges to the application of tDCS, but also provides a unique opportunity to study the link between the brain and behaviour. Here, we assessed the role of individual differences in cortical morphology - specifically in prefrontal cortical regions of interest - for determining the influence of tDCS on decision-making performance. Specifically, we employed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and a previously replicated paradigm in which we modulated learning in a simple decision-making task by applying tDCS to the left prefrontal cortex in human subjects of both sexes. Cortical thickness of the left (but not right) prefrontal cortex accounted for almost 35% of the variance in stimulation efficacy across subjects. This is the first demonstration that variations in cortical architecture are associated with reliable differences in the effects of tDCS on cognition. Our findings have important implications for predicting the likely efficacy of different non-invasive brain stimulation treatments on a case by case basis.

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This article was published in the following journal.

Name: NeuroImage
ISSN: 1095-9572
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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

A technique of brain electric stimulation therapy which uses constant, low current delivered via ELECTRODES placed on various locations on the scalp.

The electrical response evoked in a muscle or motor nerve by electrical or magnetic stimulation. Common methods of stimulation are by transcranial electrical and TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION. It is often used for monitoring during neurosurgery.

Application of electric current in treatment without the generation of perceptible heat. It includes electric stimulation of nerves or muscles, passage of current into the body, or use of interrupted current of low intensity to raise the threshold of the skin to pain.

Measurable changes in activities in the CEREBRAL CORTEX upon a stimulation. A change in cortical excitability as measured by various techniques (e.g., TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION) is associated with brain disorders.

Removal of tissue with electrical current delivered via electrodes positioned at the distal end of a catheter. Energy sources are commonly direct current (DC-shock) or alternating current at radiofrequencies (usually 750 kHz). The technique is used most often to ablate the AV junction and/or accessory pathways in order to interrupt AV conduction and produce AV block in the treatment of various tachyarrhythmias.

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