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Toxic industrial chemicals and chemical warfare agents present an acute inhalation hazard to exposed populations. The hazardous materials consequence assessment modeling community requires toxicity models to estimate these hazards. One popular phenomenological toxicity model is the toxic load model. Although this model is only well-defined for constant-concentration exposures, several generalizations have been proposed for the case of time-varying exposures. None of them, however, were validated by experimental evidence at the time they were proposed. Accordingly, the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) sponsored experiments to explore the effects of time-varying inhalation exposures of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and carbon monoxide (CO) gas on rats. The experiments were designed and executed by the U.S. Army's Edgewood Chemical and Biological Center (ECBC) and the Naval Medical Research Unit Dayton (NAMRU-D) between 2012 and 2015. We conducted an independent analysis of the toxic load model's ability to predict the ECBC/NAMRU-D experimental data using an analytical methodology oriented toward consequence assessment model users. We found that although some of the proposed extensions of the toxic load model perform better than others, all of them have difficulty reproducing the experimental data. The toxic load model also has difficulty reproducing even the constant-concentration data for HCN exposures under 10 min.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology : RTP
Gesture recognition based on surface electromyogram (sEMG) signals has drawn significant attention and obtained satisfactory achievement in the field of human-computer interaction. However, the same g...
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Proceed to an analysis of sensitivity and specificity results of the fMRI language network obtained in two ways: by providing a conventional language test and independent component analysi...
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Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
A principle of estimation in which the estimates of a set of parameters in a statistical model are those quantities minimizing the sum of squared differences between the observed values of a dependent variable and the values predicted by the model.
The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Using computer technology to create and maintain an environment and project a user's physical presence in that environment allowing the user to interact with it.
Biological therapy involves the use of living organisms, substances derived from living organisms, or laboratory-produced versions of such substances to treat disease. Some biological therapies for cancer use vaccines or bacteria to stimulate the body&rs...