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PD-L2 is a ligand for the immune checkpoint receptor PD-1, however, its regulatory function is unclear. We previously reported that silencing of CD86 in cutaneous dendritic cells (DCs) by topical siRNA application inhibits the elicitation of contact hypersensitivity (CHS). Here we investigated the effects of topical PD-L2 siRNA application on allergic skin disease. PD-L2 was induced in DCs concurrently with the elevation of MHC class II and CD86 expression. Topical PD-L2 siRNA application inhibited elicitation of CHS by suppressing early proinflammatory cytokine expression and migration of hapten-carrying DCs into lymph nodes. Local injection of neutralizing anti-PD-L2 mAb comparably inhibited CHS. PD-L2 siRNA treatment inhibited the CHS in PD-1/PD-L1 double-knockout mice and in the sensitized T-cell-transferred skin. These results suggest that the effects of PD-L2 silencing are independent of PD-1 but dependent on local memory T cells. Most of the inhibitory effects of PD-L2 and CD86 silencing on CHS were comparable, but PD-L2 siRNA treatment did not inhibit atopic disease-like manifestations and Th2 responses in NC/Nga mice. Our results suggest that PD-L2 in cutaneous DCs acts as a costimulator rather than a regulator. Local PD-L2 silencing by topical siRNA application represents a therapeutic approach for contact allergy.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: The Journal of investigative dermatology
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RNA interference (RNAi) is a widely used technique to regulate the expression of genes and proteins with a high degree of specificity that is not easily accessed by traditional pharmacological approac...
To determine if silencing PD-1 on tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and its ligand-1 (PD-L1) on cancer cells will enhance the cytotoxicity of TILs.
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Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
A family of RNA-binding proteins that has specificity for MICRORNAS and SMALL INTERFERING RNA molecules. The proteins take part in RNA processing events as core components of RNA-induced silencing complex.
The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.
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Cytokine Tumour Necrosis Factor (TNF)
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