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C1q/TNF-related protein-9(CTRP9) is an adipose cytokine, a closest adiponectin paralog, which has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, vasodilation and anti-atherosclerosis effects. In addition, it can increase insulin sensitivity, decrease blood glucose level and inhibit the apoptosis of endothelial cells. However, it remains unclear whether CTRP9 has beneficial effects on diabetic retinopathy (DR). An adenoviral vector expressing CTRP9 was intravenously injected into db/db mice, aged 12 weeks, at day 15 post injection, and the process was repeated. The transfection efficiency of CTRP9 was assessed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. We used RT-PCR, immunofluorescence, and Western blot to determine proinflammatory cytokines, adhesion molecules and tight-junction proteins. The breakdown of blood-retinal barrier (BRB) was evaluated using Evans blue and retinal staining. CTRP9 suppresses the expression of interleukin-1 beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and adhesion molecules in the retina of db/db mice. CTRP9 can balance the expression of pigment epithelium-derived factor and vascular endothelial growth factor. CTRP9 can also inhibit the activation of nuclear factor Kappa B in the retina of db/db mouse. In addition, CTRP9 can prevent the breakdown of BRB and downregulation of tight-junction proteins in the retina of db/db mice. Evans blue assay revealed the breakdown of BRB and vascular leakage in the retinas of diabetic mice. CTRP9 can both qualitatively and quantitatively alleviate the vascular leakage in the early stage of diabetic retinas. CTRP9 can inhibit the inflammation of diabetic retinopathy and protect blood-retinal barrier via decreasing proinflammatory cytokines and preventing the downregulation of tight-junction proteins.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: European journal of pharmacology
Müller glia (MG) are major sources of retinal cytokines, and their activation is closely linked to retinal inflammation and vascular leakage in diabetic retinopathy. Previously, we demonstrated that ...
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a microvascular disease characterized by capillary dropout and resultant retinal ischemia which then leads to retinal vascular remodeling. Our goal was to assess blood flo...
Retinal ischemia, a common cause of several vision-threatening diseases, contributes to the death of retinal neurons, particularly retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF...
Glaucoma is a common heterogeneous eye disorder that may lead to irreversible blindness. In the present study, we examined whether etidronate, a member of bisphosphonates, may have neuroprotective eff...
The retina is an immune privileged tissue, which is protected from external and internal insults by its blood-retinal barriers and immune suppressive microenvironment. Apart from the avoidance and tol...
The inner retina is crucially dependent on an adequate retinal blood supply. When the retina becomes ischemic and hypoxic this results in severe vision loss due to retinal neovascularizati...
The purpose of the study is to test if oxygen saturation in retinal vessels is correlated with clinical parameters, such as visual acuity, central retinal thickness and presence of neovasc...
Individuals operated for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment will be prospectively evaluated for postoperative retinal shift. Fundus autofluorescence will be used to evaluate retinal shift t...
Patients are required to position prior to retinal detachment surgery. We seek to see whether there is a correlation between the performed positioning and retinal detachment progression/re...
Ocular lesions, including cotton wool spots and retinal hemorrhage, are a common feature of HIV infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The aetiology of these apparently v...
A group of rare, idiopathic, congenital retinal vascular anomalies affecting the retinal capillaries. It is characterized by dilation and tortuosity of retinal vessels and formation of multiple aneurysms, with different degrees of leakage and exudates emanating from the blood vessels.
Specialized ophthalmic technique used in the surgical repair and or treatment of disorders that include retinal tears or detachment; MACULAR HOLES; hereditary retinal disease; AIDS-related retinal infections; ocular tumors; MACULAR DEGENERATION; DIABETIC RETINOPATHY; and UVEITIS.
The inner portion of a retinal rod or a cone photoreceptor cell, situated between the PHOTORECEPTOR CONNECTING CILIUM and the synapse with the adjacent neurons (RETINAL BIPOLAR CELLS; RETINAL HORIZONTAL CELLS). The inner segment contains the cell body, the nucleus, the mitochondria, and apparatus for protein synthesis.
Inflammation of the retinal vasculature with various causes including infectious disease; LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC; MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS; BEHCET SYNDROME; and CHORIORETINITIS.
A membrane on the vitreal surface of the retina resulting from the proliferation of one or more of three retinal elements: (1) fibrous astrocytes; (2) fibrocytes; and (3) retinal pigment epithelial cells. Localized epiretinal membranes may occur at the posterior pole of the eye without clinical signs or may cause marked loss of vision as a result of covering, distorting, or detaching the fovea centralis. Epiretinal membranes may cause vascular leakage and secondary retinal edema. In younger individuals some membranes appear to be developmental in origin and occur in otherwise normal eyes. The majority occur in association with retinal holes, ocular concussions, retinal inflammation, or after ocular surgery. (Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p291)
Cytokine Tumour Necrosis Factor (TNF)
TNF is a compound that is classified as a cytokine which plays a central role in the cellular mechanisms of apoptosis or cell death. However, there are a number of different kinds of TNF, just under twenty, but the family of molecules have very similar a...
Within medicine, nutrition (the study of food and the effect of its components on the body) has many different roles. Appropriate nutrition can help prevent certain diseases, or treat others. In critically ill patients, artificial feeding by tubes need t...