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High-grade gliomas, particularly glioblastomas (grade IV), are devastating diseases with dismal prognoses; afflicted patients seldom live longer than 15 months, and their quality of life suffers immensely. Our current standard-of-care therapy has remained essentially unchanged for almost 15 years, with little new therapeutic progress.We desperately need a better biologic understanding of these complicated tumors in a complicated organ.One area of rejuvenated study relates to extracellular vesicles (EVs)-membrane-enclosed nano- or microsized particles that originate from the endosomal system or are shed from the plasma membrane. EVs contribute to tumor heterogeneity (including the maintenance of glioma stem cells or their differentiation), the impacts of hypoxia (angiogenesis and coagulopathies), interactions amid the tumor microenvironment (concerning the survival of astrocytes, neurons, endothelial cells, blood vessels, the blood-brain barrier, and the ensuing inflammation), and influences on the immune system (both stimulatory and suppressive). This article reviews glioma EVs and the ways that EVs manifest themselves as autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine factors in proximal and distal intra- and intercellular communications. The reader should note that there is much controversy, and indeed confusion, in the field over the exact roles for EVs in many biological processes, and we will engage some of these difficulties herein. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics Volume 22 is August 30, 2019. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Annual review of genomics and human genetics
The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling perfusion (pCASL) in assessing the degree of malignancy of brain gliomas at the preoperative stage...
Fluorescence guided surgery has developed over the last 2 decades as a formidable augmentation strategy to promote maximal safe resection and diagnostic accuracy within gliomas. The majority of the li...
Glioma is the most common primary intracranial tumor. Molecular neuropathology was introduced into the new 2016 WHO classification of brain tumor. Among the molecular biomarkers, Ki-67 antigen is the ...
Intraoperative stimulation mapping (ISM) using electrocortical mapping (awake craniotomy, AC) or evoked potentials has become a solid option for the resection of supratentorial low-grade gliomas in el...
Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) offers potential to monitor response and predict survival in high-grade gliomas (HGG) and diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPG). We hypothesiz...
N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), which are abundant in oily fish and fish oils, have been suggested to play a role in reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) by modi...
To evaluate the efficacy of multi-modality magnetic resonance quantitative parameters in evaluating the treatment effects of high-grade gliomas, and to provide new biomarkers for the estab...
Beta-cells release extracellular vesicles (EV) and exosomes under normal and pathophysiologic conditions. These EV contain beta-cell specific autoantigens which may trigger the immune resp...
data from the wistar institute indicated that this anti-body labeled with iodine-125 would localized in the tumor cells of high grade gliomas of the brain. the project combines surgery, r...
This study assesses the tolerability, safety, efficacy and pharmacokinetics of RTA 744 in recurrent high-grade gliomas.
A tumor of both low- and high-grade malignancy. The low-grade grow slowly, appear in any age group, and are readily cured by excision. The high-grade behave aggressively, widely infiltrate the salivary gland and produce lymph node and distant metastases. Mucoepidermoid carcinomas account for about 21% of the malignant tumors of the parotid gland and 10% of the sublingual gland. They are the most common malignant tumor of the parotid. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p575; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1240)
Membrane limited structures derived from cell membranes and cytoplasmic material, and released into EXTRACELLULAR SPACE. They circulate through the EXTRACELLULAR FLUID and through the peripheral blood in the MICROVASCULATURE where cells, much larger, cannot, thereby affecting a variety of intercellular communication processes.
Vesicles secreted from MULTIVESICULAR BODIES into the extracellular environment when the multivesicular bodies fuse with the PLASMA MEMBRANE. Multivesicular bodies are formed from ENDOSOMES when they accumulate vesicles (sometimes referred to as "intraluminal vesicles") from inward budding of the endosome membrane.
Endosomes containing intraluminal vesicles which are formed by the inward budding of the endosome membrane. Multivesicular bodies (MVBs) may fuse with other organelles such as LYSOSOMES or fuse back with the PLASMA MEMBRANE releasing their contents by EXOCYTOSIS. The MVB intraluminal vesicles released into the extracellular environment are known as EXOSOMES.
A malignant epithelial tumor of glandular tissue, especially the salivary glands, characterized by acini with mucus-producing cells and by the presence of malignant squamous elements. Most mucoepidermoid tumors are low-grade lesions readily cured by adequate excision. They may appear in any age group. They grow slowly. If high-grade, they behave aggressively, widely infiltrating the salivary gland and producing lymph node and distant metastases. (Dorland, 27th ed; from DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p575)
According to the American Brain Tumor Association, just over 24,000 patients will be diagnosed with a primary malignant brain tumour during 2012 in the US alone. Some 80% of primary malignant brain tumours are gliomas, a broad term which includes all tum...
Blood is a specialized bodily fluid that delivers necessary substances to the body's cells (in animals) – such as nutrients and oxygen – and transports waste products away from those same cells. In vertebrates, it is composed of blo...
Track and monitor developments in stem cell research and commercial development. Follow the tabs above to read the latest global news, research, clinical trials on stem cells and follow companies active in the stem cell industry. BioPort...