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Roles of Extracellular Vesicles in High-Grade Gliomas: Tiny Particles with Outsized Influence.

08:00 EDT 12th April 2019 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Roles of Extracellular Vesicles in High-Grade Gliomas: Tiny Particles with Outsized Influence."

High-grade gliomas, particularly glioblastomas (grade IV), are devastating diseases with dismal prognoses; afflicted patients seldom live longer than 15 months, and their quality of life suffers immensely. Our current standard-of-care therapy has remained essentially unchanged for almost 15 years, with little new therapeutic progress.We desperately need a better biologic understanding of these complicated tumors in a complicated organ.One area of rejuvenated study relates to extracellular vesicles (EVs)-membrane-enclosed nano- or microsized particles that originate from the endosomal system or are shed from the plasma membrane. EVs contribute to tumor heterogeneity (including the maintenance of glioma stem cells or their differentiation), the impacts of hypoxia (angiogenesis and coagulopathies), interactions amid the tumor microenvironment (concerning the survival of astrocytes, neurons, endothelial cells, blood vessels, the blood-brain barrier, and the ensuing inflammation), and influences on the immune system (both stimulatory and suppressive). This article reviews glioma EVs and the ways that EVs manifest themselves as autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine factors in proximal and distal intra- and intercellular communications. The reader should note that there is much controversy, and indeed confusion, in the field over the exact roles for EVs in many biological processes, and we will engage some of these difficulties herein. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics Volume 22 is August 30, 2019. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

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This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Annual review of genomics and human genetics
ISSN: 1545-293X
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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

A tumor of both low- and high-grade malignancy. The low-grade grow slowly, appear in any age group, and are readily cured by excision. The high-grade behave aggressively, widely infiltrate the salivary gland and produce lymph node and distant metastases. Mucoepidermoid carcinomas account for about 21% of the malignant tumors of the parotid gland and 10% of the sublingual gland. They are the most common malignant tumor of the parotid. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p575; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1240)

Membrane limited structures derived from cell membranes and cytoplasmic material, and released into EXTRACELLULAR SPACE. They circulate through the EXTRACELLULAR FLUID and through the peripheral blood in the MICROVASCULATURE where cells, much larger, cannot, thereby affecting a variety of intercellular communication processes.

Vesicles secreted from MULTIVESICULAR BODIES into the extracellular environment when the multivesicular bodies fuse with the PLASMA MEMBRANE. Multivesicular bodies are formed from ENDOSOMES when they accumulate vesicles (sometimes referred to as "intraluminal vesicles") from inward budding of the endosome membrane.

Endosomes containing intraluminal vesicles which are formed by the inward budding of the endosome membrane. Multivesicular bodies (MVBs) may fuse with other organelles such as LYSOSOMES or fuse back with the PLASMA MEMBRANE releasing their contents by EXOCYTOSIS. The MVB intraluminal vesicles released into the extracellular environment are known as EXOSOMES.

A malignant epithelial tumor of glandular tissue, especially the salivary glands, characterized by acini with mucus-producing cells and by the presence of malignant squamous elements. Most mucoepidermoid tumors are low-grade lesions readily cured by adequate excision. They may appear in any age group. They grow slowly. If high-grade, they behave aggressively, widely infiltrating the salivary gland and producing lymph node and distant metastases. (Dorland, 27th ed; from DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p575)

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