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Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most common form of genetic variation in humans and drive phenotypic variation. Due to evolutionary conservation, SNPs and indels (insertion and deletions) are depleted in functionally important sequence elements. Recently, population-scale sequencing efforts such as the 1000 Genomes Project and the Genome of the Netherlands Project have catalogued large numbers of sequence variants. Here, we present a systematic analysis of the polymorphisms reported by these two projects in different coding and non-coding genomic elements of the human genome (intergenic regions, CpG islands, promoters, 5' UTRs, coding exons, 3' UTRs, introns, and intragenic regions). Furthermore, we were especially interested in the distribution of SNPs and indels in direct vicinity to the transcription start site (TSS) and translation start site (CSS). Thereby, we discovered an enrichment of dinucleotides CpG and CpA and an accumulation of SNPs at base position -1 relative to the TSS that involved primarily CpG and CpA dinucleotides. Genes having a CpG dinucleotide at TSS position -1 were enriched in the functional GO terms "Phosphoprotein", "Alternative splicing", and "Protein binding". Focusing on the CSS, we compared SNP patterns in the flanking regions of canonical and alternative AUG and near-cognate start sites where we considered alternative starts previously identified by experimental ribosome profiling. We observed similar conservation patterns of canonical and alternative translation start sites, which underlines the importance of alternative translation mechanisms for cellular function.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PloS one
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The process that starts the transcription of an RNA molecule. It includes the assembly of the initiation complex and establishment of the start site.
The three possible sequences of CODONS by which GENETIC TRANSLATION may occur from one nucleotide sequence. A segment of mRNA 5'AUCCGA3' could be translated as 5'AUC.. or 5'UCC.. or 5'CCG.., depending on the location of the START CODON.
A heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoprotein found in the CELL NUCLEUS and the CYTOPLASM. Heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoprotein K has been implicated in the regulation of gene expression at nearly all levels: GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION; mRNA processing (RNA PROCESSING, POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL), mRNA transport, mRNA stability, and translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). The hnRNP protein has a strong affinity for polypyrimidine-rich RNA and for single-stranded polypyrimidine-rich DNA. Multiple hnRNP K protein isoforms exist due to alternative splicing and display different nucleic-acid-binding properties.
The discontinuation of transcription at the end of a transcription unit, including the recognition of termination sites and release of the newly synthesized RNA molecule.
A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).
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DNA sequencing is the process of determining the precise order of nucleotides within a DNA molecule. During DNA sequencing, the bases of a small fragment of DNA are sequentially identified from signals emitted as each fragment is re-synthesized from a ...