Targeted disruption of glycogen synthase kinase-3β in cardiomyocytes attenuates cardiac parasympathetic dysfunction in type 1 diabetic Akita mice.

08:00 EDT 12th April 2019 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Targeted disruption of glycogen synthase kinase-3β in cardiomyocytes attenuates cardiac parasympathetic dysfunction in type 1 diabetic Akita mice."

Type 1 diabetic Akita mice develop severe cardiac parasympathetic dysfunction that we have previously demonstrated is due at least in part to an abnormality in the response of the end organ to parasympathetic stimulation. Specifically, we had shown that hypoinsulinemia in the diabetic heart results in attenuation of the G-protein coupled inward rectifying K channel (GIRK) which mediates the negative chronotropic response to parasympathetic stimulation due at least in part to decreased expression of the GIRK1 and GIRK4 subunits of the channel. We further demonstrated that the expression of GIRK1 and GIRK4 is under the control of the Sterol Regulatory element Binding Protein (SREBP-1), which is also decreased in response to hypoinsulinemia. Finally, given that hyperactivity of Glycogen Synthase Kinase (GSK)3β, had been demonstrated in the diabetic heart, we demonstrated that treatment of Akita mice with Li+, an inhibitor of GSK3β, increased parasympathetic responsiveness and SREBP-1 levels consistent with the conclusion that GSK3β might regulate IKACh via an effect on SREBP-1. However, inhibitor studies were complicated by lack of specificity for GSK3β. Here we generated an Akita mouse with cardiac specific inducible knockout of GSK3β. Using this mouse, we demonstrate that attenuation of GSK3β expression is associated with an increase in parasympathetic responsiveness measured as an increase in the heart rate response to atropine from 17.3 ± 3.5% (n = 8) prior to 41.2 ± 5.4% (n = 8, P = 0.017), an increase in the duration of carbamylcholine mediated bradycardia from 8.43 ± 1.60 min (n = 7) to 12.71 ± 2.26 min (n = 7, P = 0.028) and an increase in HRV as measured by an increase in the high frequency fraction from 40.78 ± 3.86% to 65.04 ± 5.64 (n = 10, P = 0.005). Furthermore, patch clamp measurements demonstrated a 3-fold increase in acetylcholine stimulated peak IKACh in atrial myocytes from GSK3β deficiency mice compared with control. Finally, western blot analysis of atrial extracts from knockout mice demonstrated increased levels of SREBP-1, GIRK1 and GIRK4 compared with control. Taken together with our prior observations, these data establish a role of increased GSK3β activity in the pathogenesis of parasympathetic dysfunction in type 1 diabetes via the regulation of IKACh and GIRK1/4 expression.


Journal Details

This article was published in the following journal.

Name: PloS one
ISSN: 1932-6203
Pages: e0215213


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A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.

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A class of protein-serine-threonine kinases that was originally found as one of the three types of kinases that phosphorylate GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE. Glycogen synthase kinases along with CA(2+)-CALMODULIN DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES and CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES regulate glycogen synthase activity.

An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phosphorylated, inactive glycogen synthase D to active dephosphoglycogen synthase I. EC

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