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Mitochondrial Angiotensin Receptors and Cardioprotective Pathways.

08:00 EDT 12th April 2019 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Mitochondrial Angiotensin Receptors and Cardioprotective Pathways."

A growing body of data provides strong evidence that intracellular angiotensin II (Ang II) plays an important role in mammalian cell function and is involved in the pathogenesis of human diseases such hypertension, diabetes, inflammation, fibrosis, arrhythmias, and kidney disease, among others. Recent studies also suggest that intracellular Ang II exert protective effects in cells during high extracellular levels of the hormone or during chronic stimulation of local tissue renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Notably, the intracellular RAS (iRAS) described in neurons, fibroblasts, renal cells, and cardiomyocytes, have provided new insights into regulatory mechanisms mediated by intracellular Ang II type 1 (AT1-Rs) and 2 receptors (AT2-Rs), particularly, in mitochondria and nucleus. Ang II through nuclear AT1-Rs promotes protective mechanisms by stimulating the AT2-R signaling cascade which involves mitochondrial AT2-Rs and Mas receptors. The stimulation of nuclear Ang II receptors enhances mitochondrial biogenesis, thus protecting the cell against oxidative stress. Recent studies in Ang II-induced preconditioning suggest that plasma membrane AT2-R stimulation exerts protective effects against cardiac ischemia-reperfusion by modulating mitochondrial AT1-R and AT-2R signaling. These studies suggest that iRAS promotes the protection of cells through nuclear AT1-R signaling, which, in turn, promotes AT2-R-dependent processes in mitochondria. Thus, despite abundant data on the deleterious effects of intracellular Ang II, a growing body of studies also support a protective role for iRAS. This review summarizes and discusses previous studies on the role of iRAS, particularly, emphasizing the protective and counterbalancing actions of iRAS, mitochondrial Ang II receptors, and their implications for organ protection.

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Name: American journal of physiology. Heart and circulatory physiology
ISSN: 1522-1539
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