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Stokes equations are commonly used to model the hydrodynamic flow around cilia on the micron scale. The validity of the zero Reynolds number approximation is investigated experimentally with a flow velocimetry approach based on optical tweezers, which allows the measurement of periodic flows with high spatial and temporal resolution. We find that beating cilia generate a flow, which fundamentally differs from the stokeslet field predicted by Stokes equations. In particular, the flow velocity spatially decays at a faster rate and is gradually phase delayed at increasing distances from the cilia. This indicates that the quasisteady approximation and use of Stokes equations for unsteady ciliary flow are not always justified and the finite timescale for vorticity diffusion cannot be neglected. Our results have significant implications in studies of synchronization and collective dynamics of microswimmers.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Physical review letters
Flows in fluid layers are ubiquitous in industry, geophysics, and astrophysics. Large-scale flows in thin layers can be considered two dimensional with bottom friction added. Here we find that the pro...
Four-dimensional flow magnetic resonance imaging (4D flow MRI) is a versatile tool to obtain hemodynamic information and anatomic information simultaneously. The wall shear stress (WSS), a force exert...
The rebreathing of expired air, with high carbon dioxide and low oxygen concentrations, has long been implicated in unexplained Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) when infants are placed to sleep in ...
The dynamo effect is a class of macroscopic phenomena responsible for generating and maintaining magnetic fields in astrophysical bodies. It hinges on the hydrodynamic three-dimensional motion of cond...
Cilia are built and maintained by intraflagellar transport (IFT), driving IFT trains back and forth along the ciliary axoneme. How IFT brings about the intricate ciliary structure and how this structu...
1. Assessment of a high speed video camera with a green light source for the measurement of ciliary beat frequency (CBF) in the nasal airways of patients. 2. Assessments of the eff...
We include in our study 200 pregnant women, primigravidas, at term who underwent elective lower segment Cesarean section for the first time among the age group of 20 ̶ 35 years. The pati...
Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare disease, which means that any single PCD center has experience with a limited number of patients. PCD Registry is the collection of data about PC...
This is a prospective randomized controlled study to determine the clinical outcome of rectus muscle re-approximation at Cesarean delivery.
OBJECTIVES: I. Characterize the clinical presentation of patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia. II. Identify the genetic mutations associated with this disease.
A ring of tissue extending from the scleral spur to the ora serrata of the retina. It consists of the uveal portion and the epithelial portion. The ciliary muscle is in the uveal portion and the ciliary processes are in the epithelial portion.
Conditions caused by abnormal CILIA movement in the body, usually causing KARTAGENER SYNDROME, chronic respiratory disorders, chronic SINUSITIS, and chronic OTITIS. Abnormal ciliary beating is likely due to defects in any of the 200 plus ciliary proteins, such as missing motor enzyme DYNEIN arms.
A ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor subunit. It is anchored to the cell surface via GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL LINKAGE and has specificity for binding to CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR. It lacks signal transducing domains which are found on the other two subunits of the receptor.
A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.
A non-specific host defense mechanism that removes MUCUS and other material from the LUNGS by ciliary and secretory activity of the tracheobronchial submucosal glands. It is measured in vivo as mucus transfer, ciliary beat frequency, and clearance of radioactive tracers.