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The greatly increased grain boundary (GB) mobility in nanograined metals under mechanical loading is distinguished from that in their coarse-grained counterparts. The feature leads to softening of nanograined materials and deviation of strength from the classical Hall-Petch relationship. In this Letter, grain size dependences of GB migration in nanograined Ag, Cu, and Ni under tension were investigated quantitatively in a wide size range. As grain size decreases from submicron, GB migration intensifies and then diminishes below a critical grain size. The GB migration peaks at about 80, 75, and 38 nm in Ag, Cu, and Ni, respectively. The suppression of GB migration below a critical size can be attributed to GB relaxation during sample processing or by postthermal annealing. With relaxed GBs the governing deformation mechanism of nanograins shifts from GB migration to formation of through-grain twins or stacking faults. GB relaxation, analogous to GB segregation, offers a novel approach to stabilizing nanograined materials under mechanical loading.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Physical review letters
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SEEDS used as a major nutritional source, most often the grain from the POACEAE family.
A hardy grain crop, rye, grown in northern climates. It is the most frequent host to ergot (CLAVICEPS), the toxic fungus. Its hybrid with TRITICUM is TRITICALE, another grain.
The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.
The science, art, or technology dealing with processes involved in the separation of metals from their ores, the technique of making or compounding the alloys, the techniques of working or heat-treating metals, and the mining of metals. It includes industrial metallurgy as well as metallurgical techniques employed in the preparation and working of metals used in dentistry, with special reference to orthodontic and prosthodontic appliances. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p494)
Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.