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Classical nonlinear waves exhibit a phenomenon of condensation that results from the natural irreversible process of thermalization, in analogy with the quantum Bose-Einstein condensation. Wave condensation originates in the divergence of the thermodynamic equilibrium Rayleigh-Jeans distribution, which is responsible for the macroscopic population of the fundamental mode of the system. However, achieving complete thermalization and condensation of incoherent waves through nonlinear optical propagation is known to require prohibitive large interaction lengths. Here, we derive a discrete kinetic equation describing the nonequilibrium evolution of the random wave in the presence of a structural disorder of the medium. Our theory reveals that a weak disorder accelerates the rate of thermalization and condensation by several order of magnitudes. Such a counterintuitive dramatic acceleration of condensation can provide a natural explanation for the recently discovered phenomenon of optical beam self-cleaning. Our experiments in multimode optical fibers report the observation of the transition from an incoherent thermal distribution to wave condensation, with a condensate fraction of up to 60% in the fundamental mode of the waveguide trapping potential.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Physical review letters
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A personality disorder characterized by overly reactive and intensely expressed or overly dramatic behavior, proneness to exaggeration, emotional excitability, and disturbances in interpersonal relationships.
A factitious disorder characterized by habitual presentation for hospital treatment of an apparent acute illness, the patient giving a plausible and dramatic history, all of which is false.
Disorder of the peripheral nerves that primarily impair small nerve fibers. The affected small nerve fibers include myelinated A-delta fibers (see A FIBERS) and unmyelinated C FIBERS. Because these small fibers innervate skin and help control autonomic function, their neuropathy presents with neuropathic pain, reduced thermal and pain sensitivity, and autonomic dysfunction (e.g. abnormal sweating or facial flushing). Small fiber neuropathy can be idiopathic or associated with underlying diseases (e.g., AMYLOIDOSIS; DIABETES MELLITUS; SARCOIDOSIS; or VASCULITIS).
A rare inherited disorder of myelin formation. Alexander disease is a progressive leukoencephalopathy whose hallmark is the widespread accumulation of cytoplasmic inclusions called Rosenthal fibers. The fibers contain GLIAL FIBRILLARY ACIDIC PROTEIN in association with ALPHA-CRYSTALLIN B CHAIN. Rosenthal fibers are found predominantly in ASTROCYTES located in the subependymal, subpial, and periventricular areas of the BRAIN.
A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.