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Experimental setups to produce and to monitor model membranes have been successfully used for decades and brought invaluable insights into many areas of biology. However, they all have limitations that prevent the full in vitro mimicking and monitoring of most biological processes. Here, a suspended physiological bilayer-forming chip is designed from 3D-printing techniques. This chip can be simultaneously integrated to a confocal microscope and a path-clamp amplifier. It is composed of poly(dimethylsiloxane) and consists of a ≈100 µm hole, where the horizontal planar bilayer is formed, connecting two open crossed-channels, which allows for altering of each lipid monolayer separately. The bilayer, formed by the zipping of two lipid leaflets, is free-standing, horizontal, stable, fluid, solvent-free, and flat with the 14 types of physiologically relevant lipids, and the bilayer formation process is highly reproducible. Because of the two channels, asymmetric bilayers can be formed by making the two lipid leaflets of different composition. Furthermore, proteins, such as transmembrane, peripheral, and pore-forming proteins, can be added to the bilayer in controlled orientation and keep their native mobility and activity. These features allow in vitro recapitulation of membrane process close to physiological conditions.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Small (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany)
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Specialized membrane glycoproteins that are found on UROTHELIUM cells. They associate into a hexagonal array of 16-nm cell surface particles which form the asymmetric unit membrane of urothelial plaques.
The inner membrane of a joint capsule surrounding a freely movable joint. It is loosely attached to the external fibrous capsule and secretes SYNOVIAL FLUID.
The passive movement of molecules exceeding the rate expected by simple diffusion. No energy is expended in the process. It is achieved by the introduction of passively diffusing molecules to an enviroment or path that is more favorable to the movement of those molecules. Examples of facilitated diffusion are passive transport of hydrophilic substances across a lipid membrane through hydrophilic pores that traverse the membrane, and the sliding of a DNA BINDING PROTEIN along a strand of DNA.
A uroplakin subtype that heterodimerizes with UROPLAKIN IB to form a component of the asymmetric unit membrane found in urothelial cells.
A uroplakin subtype that heterodimerizes with UROPLAKIN IA to form a component of the asymmetric unit membrane found in urothelial cells.
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