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Tumour molecular profiling by liquid biopsy is being investigated for a wide range of research and clinical purposes. The possibility of repeatedly interrogating the tumour profile using minimally invasive procedures is helping to understand spatial and temporal tumour heterogeneity, and to shed a light on mechanisms of resistance to targeted therapies. Moreover, this approach has been already implemented in clinical practice to address specific decisions regarding patients' follow up and therapeutic management. For central nervous system tumours (CNS), molecular profiling is particularly relevant for the proper characterization of primary neoplasms, while CNS metastases can significantly diverge from primary disease or extra-CNS metastases, thus compelling a dedicated assessment. Based on these considerations, effective liquid biopsy tools for CNS tumours are highly warranted and a significant amount of data has been accrued over the last few years. These results have shown that liquid biopsy can provide clinically-meaningful information about both primary and metastatic CNS tumours, but specific considerations must be taken into account, for example when choosing the source of liquid biopsy. Nevertheless, this approach is especially attractive for CNS tumours, since repeated tumour sampling is not feasible. The aim of our review is, therefore, to thoroughly report the state-of-the-art regarding the opportunities and challenges posed by liquid biopsy in both primary and secondary CNS tumours. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Neuropathology and applied neurobiology
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Mucocellular carcinoma of the ovary, usually metastatic from the gastrointestinal tract, characterized by areas of mucoid degeneration and the presence of signet-ring-like cells. It accounts for 30%-40% of metastatic cancers to the ovaries and possibly 1%-2% of all malignant ovarian tumors. The lesions may not be discovered until the primary disease is advanced, and most patients die of their disease within a year. In some cases, a primary tumor is not found. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1685)
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
Primary and metastatic (secondary) tumors of the brain located above the tentorium cerebelli, a fold of dura mater separating the CEREBELLUM and BRAIN STEM from the cerebral hemispheres and DIENCEPHALON (i.e., THALAMUS and HYPOTHALAMUS and related structures). In adults, primary neoplasms tend to arise in the supratentorial compartment, whereas in children they occur more frequently in the infratentorial space. Clinical manifestations vary with the location of the lesion, but SEIZURES; APHASIA; HEMIANOPSIA; hemiparesis; and sensory deficits are relatively common features. Metastatic supratentorial neoplasms are frequently multiple at the time of presentation.
Benign and malignant neoplastic processes arising from or involving components of the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous systems, cranial nerves, and meninges. Included in this category are primary and metastatic nervous system neoplasms.
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Neurology - Central Nervous System (CNS)
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