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Animal visual systems adapt to environmental light on various timescales. In scotopic conditions, evolutionary time-scale adaptations include spectral tuning to a narrower light spectrum, loss (or inactivation) of visual genes, and pure-rod or rod-dominated retinas. Some fishes inhabiting shallow coral reefs may show activity during the day and at night. It is unclear whether these fishes show adaptations typical of exclusively nocturnal or deep-sea fishes, or of diurnally active shallow-water species. Here, we investigated visual pigment diversity in cardinalfishes (Apogonidae). Most cardinalfishes are nocturnal foragers, yet they aggregate in multispecies groups in and around coral heads during the day, engaging in social and predator avoidance behaviours. We sequenced retinal transcriptomes of 28 species found on the Great Barrier Reef, assessed the diversity of expressed opsin genes and predicted the spectral sensitivities of resulting photopigments using sequence information. Predictions were combined with microspectrophotometry (MSP) measurements in seven cardinalfish species. Retinal opsin expression was rod opsin (RH1) dominated (>87%), suggesting the importance of scotopic vision. However, all species retained expression of multiple cone opsins also, presumably for colour vision. We found five distinct quantitative expression patterns among cardinalfishes, ranging from short-wavelength-shifted to long-wavelength-shifted. These results indicate that cardinalfishes are both well adapted to dim-light conditions and have retained a sophisticated colour vision sense. Other reef fish families also show both nocturnal and diurnal activity while most are strictly one or the other. It will be interesting to compare these behavioural differences across different phylogenetic groups using the criteria and methods developed here. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Molecular ecology
Both intact and deficient neural processing of faces has been found in dyslexic readers. Similarly, behavioral studies have shown both normal and abnormal face processing in developmental dyslexia. We...
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Children with Down Syndrome (DS) have a high prevalence of ocular disorders, and even when ophthalmological deficits (i.e. refractive errors or strabismus) are corrected, visual acuity seems to have a...
MR Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) enables visualisation of the visual system in glaucoma; it has been shown that the atrophy of the optic radiation is more pronounced in glaucoma than in age-matched c...
Based on a brief overview of the various aspects of schizophrenia reported by numerous studies, here we hypothesize that schizophrenia may originate (and in part be performed) from visual areas. In ot...
In this study, the investigators provide participants from ophthalmic clinic the AI visual inspection system and EDTRS in the purpose of seeking out a better way of visual inspection with ...
Reading can be an uncomfortable and difficult task for some people. Symptoms include unpleasant somatic and perceptual effects, such as eye-strain, headache, and blurred text, despite norm...
The purpose of this study is to demonstrate that ablation with the Therapy™ Cool Path™ Duo cardiac ablation system can eliminate typical atrial flutter and that its use does not result...
dyslexia is often considered like a phonological deficit but some researches show that a visual attention (V-A) deficit can occur in dyslexia. The investigator want to show that some dysle...
This study uses EEG to study brain waves at rest and in response to specific auditory and visual sensory stimuli in autistic children. We hypothesize that, compared to same age peers, aut...
Qualified professionals trained in primary eye and vision care, including measurement of visual abilities, diagnosing disorders of the visual system and provision of treatment such as prescriptions for correction of visual defects with lenses or glasses and vision therapy.
Primary headache disorders that show symptoms caused by the activation of the AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE. These autonomic features include redness and tearing of the EYE, nasal congestion or discharge, facial SWEATING and other symptoms. Most subgroups show unilateral cranial PAIN.
Naturally-occurring or artificially made water-soluble POLYMERS whose repeating units are ionizable. Polyelectrolytes demonstrate attributes that are typical of salts, such as electrical conductivity, and typical of polymers, such as viscosity.
Temporary visual deficit or impaired visual processing occurring in a rapid serial visual presentation task. After a person identifies the first of two visual targets, the ability to detect the second target is impaired for the next few hundred milliseconds. This phenomenon is called attentional blink.
Environments or habitats at the interface between truly terrestrial ecosystems and truly aquatic systems making them different from each yet highly dependent on both. Adaptations to low soil oxygen characterize many wetland species.