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Bioactive free insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) is critically important for growth. The bioavailability of IGF-I is modulated by the IGF-binding proteins and their proteases, such as pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A2 (PAPP-A2). We have created a mouse model with a specific mutation in PAPPA2 identified in a human with PAPP-A2 deficiency. The human mutation was introduced to the mouse genome via a knock-in strategy, creating knock-in mice with detectable protein levels of Papp-a2 but without protease activities. We found that the Pappa2 mutation led to significant reductions in body length (10%), body weight (10% and 20% in males and females, respectively), and relative lean mass in mice. Micro-CT analyses of Pappa2 knock-in femurs from adult mice showed inhibited periosteal bone expansion leading to more slender bones in both male and female mice. Furthermore, in the Pappa2 knock-in mice, insulin resistance correlated with decreased serum free IGF-I and increased intact IGFBP-3 concentrations. Interestingly, mice heterozygous for the knock-in mutation demonstrated a growth rate for body weight and length as well as a biochemical phenotype that was intermediate between wild-type and homozygous mice. This is the first study modeling a human PAPPA2 mutation in mice. The mouse phenotype closely resembles that of the human patients, and provides further evidence that the regulation of IGF-I bioavailability by PAPP-A2 is critical for human growth and for glucose and bone metabolism.
This article was published in the following journal.
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A mouse substrain that is genetically predisposed to the development of systemic lupus erythematosus-like syndrome, which has been found to be clinically similar to the human disease. It has been determined that this mouse strain carries a mutation in the fas gene. Also, the MRL/lpr is a useful model to study behavioral and cognitive deficits found in autoimmune diseases and the efficacy of immunosuppressive agents.
Maintenance of a constant blood glucose level by perfusion or infusion with glucose or insulin. It is used for the study of metabolic rates (e.g., in glucose, lipid, amino acid metabolism) at constant glucose concentration.
Peptide hormones that cause an increase in the absorption of GLUCOSE by cells within organs such as LIVER, MUSCLE and ADIPOSE TISSUE. During normal metabolism insulins are produced by the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS in response to increased GLUCOSE. Natural and chemically-modified forms of insulin are also used in the treatment of GLUCOSE METABOLISM DISORDERS such as DIABETES MELLITUS.
A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and epithelial cells.
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