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Laminated hydrophobic membranes have been proposed as liners for container-based sanitation systems in developing countries. The laminate allows drying of fecal sludge, which might significantly reduce the frequency of container emptying, while containing liquids and solids. While previous laboratory tests demonstrated rapid drying of fecal sludge or water retained in laminates, experiments did not assess the effects of system dimension or scale on performance. In this study fecal sludge drying and water evaporation were evaluated in 3D laminate boxes (decimeter scale) or 3D laminate-lined 40 L and 55 gallon drums (meter scale) that are prototypes of toilet containers for field application. A stagnant film model described fecal sludge drying and water evaporation in the laminate boxes and laminate-lined drums well. The effective diffusion length (λ) for the laminate was fitted in all systems and increased with system dimension and scale: λ increased by a factor of 1.4 from 1D decimeter-scale envelopes to 3D decimeter-scale boxes, and by a factor of 1.3-1.7 from 3D decimeter-scale boxes to 3D meter-scale drums. The longer λ with increasing dimension and scale is likely due to nonuniform temperature and relative humidity in the air outside the laminate and nonuniform temperature within the laminate. Using best-fit λ for the laminate-lined 40 L and 55 gallon drum experiments conducted in a controlled laboratory, drying was predicted for an 11-day field experiment. Although the air temperature and relative humidity varied significantly in the field tests from -1 °C to 26 °C and 35% to 97%, respectively, the stagnant film model predicted drying over the 11-day period reasonably well with total error ≤ 13% using 24-h average air temperature and relative humidity. Drying of fecal sludge in laminate-lined drums in the field might be adequately described with a stagnant film model using daily-average weather conditions, if wind speeds are low.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: The Science of the total environment
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Management, removal, and elimination of biologic, infectious, pathologic, and dental waste. The concept includes blood, mucus, tissue removed at surgery or autopsy, soiled surgical dressings, and other materials requiring special control and handling. Disposal may take place where the waste is generated or elsewhere.
The sole genus in the family Methanospirillaceae whose organisms are progressively motile by means of polar, tufted flagella. They have been isolated from sewage-sludge and pear waste digesters as well as marine and non-marine habitats.
Waste products which, upon release into the atmosphere, water or soil, cause health risks to humans or animals through skin contact, inhalation or ingestion. Hazardous waste sites which contain hazardous waste substances go here.
The process whereby a society changes from a rural to an urban way of life. It refers also to the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas.
A process of waste disposal involving the conversion of green waste (i.e. leaves, organic matter, food waste, manure) into soil-enhancing matter.