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Here, we propose a new two-layer three-dimensional (3-D) DNA walker sensor with highly integrated entropy-driven and enzyme-powered reactions for the first time. The 3-D DNA walker sensor is constructed by assembling densely carboxyfluorescein-labeled single strand oligonucleotides (inner-layer tracks) and nucleic acid complex S (outer-layer tracks) on a microparticle. In the presence of the target, outer and inner tracks are activated in turn, thereby releasing a great deal of the signal reporters for signal reading. As a result, our 3-D DNA walker sensor can realize the target detection in the range from 2 pM to 5 nM within one hour. Besides, the specific walker sensor can clearly distinguish even one-base mismatched target analogue. More importantly, our walker sensor can also test the target in human serum samples in the concentrations as low as 0.1 nM, which provides a bridge between real sample detection and clinical application. Certainly, this smart strategy could also be generalized to any target of interest by proper design.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Biosensors & bioelectronics
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Elderly subjects repeated 6MWT with or without walker
The measure of that part of the heat or energy of a system which is not available to perform work. Entropy increases in all natural (spontaneous and irreversible) processes. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
An approximately 250 amino acid domain common to AAA ATPases and AAA Proteins. It consists of a highly conserved N-terminal P-Loop ATPase subdomain with an alpha-beta-alpha conformation, and a less-conserved C-terminal subdomain with an all alpha conformation. The N-terminal subdomain includes Walker A and Walker B motifs which function in ATP binding and hydrolysis.
The two dimensional measure of the outer layer of the body.
The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).
Echocardiography amplified by the addition of depth to the conventional two-dimensional ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY visualizing only the length and width of the heart. Three-dimensional ultrasound imaging was first described in 1961 but its application to echocardiography did not take place until 1974. (Mayo Clin Proc 1993;68:221-40)
Bioinformatics is the application of computer software and hardware to the management of biological data to create useful information. Computers are used to gather, store, analyze and integrate biological and genetic information which can then be applied...
Enzymes are proteins that catalyze (i.e., increase the rates of) chemical reactions. In enzymatic reactions, the molecules at the beginning of the process, called substrates, are converted into different molecules, called products. Almost all chemical re...