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The main goal of the current study was to investigate the membrane fouling mechanism of aerobic granular sludge (AGS) with various AGS sizes. In this regard, AGSs were sieved into 6 levels: 0∼0.5, 0.5∼0.7, 0.7∼1, 1∼1.2, 1.2∼1.7 mm and larger than 1.7 mm, then filtrated by a small dead-end filtration cell. Interestingly, there appeared a critical AGS size (1∼1.2 mm) for membrane fouling. Above 1.2 mm, flux increased and fouling reduced with size, due to the loose cake layer and high permeability caused by larger AGS. Below 1 mm, for smaller AGS, higher flux and lower fouling appeared, because less extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) formed and adhered onto AGS foulants. In the critical size, membrane fouling was serious to the most extent, on account of the dual role of the compact structure of cake fouling layer and the adhesion of EPS. Moreover, this critical AGS size also possessed the highest cake layer, pore blocking and irreversible fouling, which generally existed in various operational conditions. Besides, the results of SEM, AFM, hydrophilicity and ATR-FTIR also proved that the existence of the maximum membrane fouling at the critical AGS size. This study provides a deep understanding of the membrane fouling mechanisms of AGS in membrane filtration and is beneficial for developing a new membrane fouling mitigation strategy by terms of regulating AGS size.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Water research
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A member of the vesicle-associated membrane protein family involved in the MEMBRANE FUSION of TRANSPORT VESICLES to their target membrane.
The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.
An abundant lysosomal-associated membrane protein that has been found to shuttle between LYSOSOMES; ENDOSOMES; and the PLASMA MEMBRANE. Loss of expression of lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2 is associated with GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISEASE TYPE IIB.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
A group of three related eukaryotic phyla whose members possess an alveolar membrane system, consisting of flattened membrane-bound sacs lying beneath the outer cell membrane.