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Occurrence of phthalates in water resources, bottled water, and tap water, and health risk of exposure to the phthalates through drinking water in Tehran, Iran, 2018 were studied. The six phthalates with the most health and environmental concerns, including di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dimethyl phthalate (DMP), and di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP) were monitored in drinking water and water resources. The average levels (±standard deviation: SD) of the total phthalates in drinking water from the water distribution system, bottled water, surface waters, and ground waters were determined to be 0.76 ± 0.19, 0.96 ± 0.10, 1.06 ± 0.23, and 0.77 ± 0.06 μg/L, respectively. The dominant compounds in the phthalates were DMP and DEHP causing a contribution to the total phthalate levels higher than 60% in all the water sources. The phthalate levels of drinking water significantly increased by contact of hot water with disposable plastic and paper cups and by sunlight exposure of bottled water (p value < 0.05). The hazard quotients (HQs) of DEHP, BBP, DBP, and DEP for all ages both sexes combined were determined to be 1.56 × 10, 1.01 × 10, 1.80 × 10, and 1.29 × 10, respectively that were much lower than the boundary value of 1.0. The disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and DALY rate (per 100,000 people) attributable to DEHP intake through drinking water for all ages both sexes combined were estimated to be 6.385 (uncertainty interval: UI 95% 1.892 to 22.133), and 0.073 (0.022-0.255), respectively. The proportion of mortality in the attributable DALYs was over 96%. The attributable DALY rate exhibited no significant difference by sex, but was considerably affected by age in a manner that the DALY rates ranged from 0.052 (0.015-0.175) in the age group 65 y plus to 0.099 (0.026-0.304) in the age group 5 to 9 y. Both the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health risks of the phthalates in drinking water were considered to be very low. The results can also be of importance in terms of developing frameworks to expand the domain of burden of disease study to the other environmental risks.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Environmental research
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Environmental reservoirs of water related to natural WATER CYCLE by which water is obtained for various purposes. This includes but is not limited to watersheds, aquifers and springs.
Preservation and or management of WATER RESOURCES especially under conditions of scarce supply.
Any of several processes in which undesirable impurities in water are removed or neutralized; for example, chlorination, filtration, primary treatment, ion exchange, and distillation. It includes treatment of waste water to provide potable and hygiene water in a controlled or closed environment as well as provision of public drinking water supplies. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.
Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.