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Immunization of adolescent girls with VLP vaccines, made of L1 proteins from the most medically significant high risk HPV types, is a major strategy for prevention of cervical cancer plus other HPV-associated cancers. Maximal population impact, including through herd immunity, requires high vaccination coverage. However, protection of unvaccinated women requires secondary prevention through cytology screening. Unfortunately in countries with the highest incidence/mortality due to cervical cancer HPV vaccination (or cytology screening) is not sufficiently available. Vaccination programme costs and a lack of accessibility of the populations for immunisation remain significant hurdles. Several approaches could increase effective implementation of HPV vaccination. 1) Use of a single immunization of the current VLP vaccines. 2) Vaccination bundled with other paediatric vaccines with lower dosage to facilitate delivery, improve coverage and reduce costs through established logistics. 3) Local manufacture with lower cost systems (e.g. bacteria) for VLP or capsomer based vaccine production and utilization of additional protective epitopes (e.g L2) for increasing breadth of protection. However, all the latter need appropriate clinical validation. Gender neutral vaccination and extending routine vaccination strategies to women up to age 30 years in combination with at least one HPV screening test can also hasten impact on cancer incidence.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Papillomavirus research (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
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Differential treatment or unequal access to opportunities, based on group membership such as origin or ethnicity.
Differential treatment or unequal access to opportunities or services based on perceived homosexual preference or orientation.
Biased behaviors or attitudes, differential treatment, unequal access to social participation or opportunities based on age.
An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)
Specific practices for the prevention of disease or mental disorders in susceptible individuals or populations. These include HEALTH PROMOTION, including mental health; protective procedures, such as COMMUNICABLE DISEASE CONTROL; and monitoring and regulation of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS. Primary prevention is to be distinguished from SECONDARY PREVENTION and TERTIARY PREVENTION.
Cervical cancer is a malignant neoplasm of the cervix uteri or cervical area. Symptoms include vaginal bleeding, but may not present until later stages of the cancer. Cervical cancer can be treated using surgery (including local excision) in early stages...
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