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The imputability of neutralizing antibodies (NABs) in secondary non-response (SnR) to botulinum toxin (BoNT) injections for limb spasticity is still debated.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Annals of physical and rehabilitation medicine
To provide a comprehensive overview of reported effects and scientific robustness of botulinum toxin (BoNT) treatment regarding the main clinical goals related to post-stroke upper limb spasticity, us...
Treatment with Botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) is effective in decreasing upper limb spasticity.
The mechanisms by which spasticity reductions after botulinum toxin A (BoNT) affect gait in stroke are not well understood. We systematically reviewed the effects of BoNT on spatiotemporal, kinematic,...
Botulinum toxin injections in aesthetic medicine are the most widely used products, ahead of hyaluronic acid, and aesthetic medicine is constantly increasing, including in the male population. The obj...
To assess treatment effect of lower limb botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) in combination with physiotherapy approaches on gross motor functions in children with cerebral palsy compared with only physiot...
Botulinum toxin is the main treatment for focal spasticity but the effects of botulinum toxin injections with respect to limitations of gait activities are still discussed. The aim of this...
The purpose of this study is to determine whether injections of Botulinum toxin type A into muscles of the upper limb are effective in treating spasticity in patients after stroke.
Botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) is widely used in the clinics to reduce spasticity and improve upper limb function for post-stroke patients. However, there were no studies to compare the e...
The purpose of this study is to determine whether injections of Botulinum toxin type A into muscles of the leg are effective in treating patients with increased muscle tension/uncontrollab...
Upper limb spasticity is currently mainly managed with local toxin treatments. Recent studies suggested combining botulinum toxin injections with splinting to optimise rehabilitation in sp...
Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type C which is neurotoxic to ANIMALS, especially CATTLE, but not humans. It causes dissociation of ACTIN FILAMENTS.
Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type D which is neurotoxic to ANIMALS, especially CATTLE, but not humans.
Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type B which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.
Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces BOTULINUM TOXIN TYPE A which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.
Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type E which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.
An antibody is a protein produced by the body's immune system when it detects harmful substances, called antigens. Examples of antigens include microorganisms (such as bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses) and chemicals. Antibodies may be produc...