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Aggregation of the microtubule-associated protein, tau, can lead to neurofibrillary tangle formation in neurons and glia which is the hallmark of tauopathy. The cellular damage induced by the formation of neurofibrillary tangles leads to neuroinflammation and consecutive neuronal death. However, detailed observation of transcriptomic changes under tauopathy together with the comparison of age-dependent progression of neuroinflammatory gene expressions mediated by tau overexpression is required. Employing RNA sequencing on PS19 transgenic mice that overexpress human mutant tau harboring the P301S mutation, we have examined the effects of age-dependent tau overexpression on transcriptomic changes of immune and inflammatory responses in the cerebral cortex. Compared to age-matched wild type control, P301S transgenic mice exhibit significant transcriptomic alterations. We have observed age-dependent neuroinflammatory gene expression changes in both wild type and P301S transgenic mice where tau overexpression further promoted the expression of neuroinflammatory genes in 10-month old P301S transgenic mice. Moreover, functional gene network analyses (gene ontology and pathway enrichment) and prospective target protein interactions predicted the potential involvement of multiple immune and inflammatory pathways that may contribute to tau-mediated neuronal pathology. Our current study on P301S transgenic mice model revealed for the first time, the differences of gene expression patterns in both early and late stage of tau pathology in cerebral cortex. Our analyses also revealed that tau overexpression alone induces multiple inflammatory and immune transcriptomic changes and may provide a roadmap to elucidate the targets of anti-inflammatory therapeutic strategy focused on tau pathology and related neurodegenerative diseases.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Brain, behavior, and immunity
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A technique for analysis of the chemical composition of molecules. A substance is bombarded with monochromatic ELECTRONS. Some of the electrons passing through the specimen will lose energy when they ionize inner shell electrons of the atoms in the specimen. The energy loss is element dependent. Analysis of the energy loss spectrum reveals the elemental composition of a specimen. ENERGY-FILTERED TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY is a type of electron energy loss spectroscopy carried out in electron microscopes specially outfitted to analyze the spectrum of electron energy loss.
A key regulator of CELL CYCLE progression. It partners with CYCLIN E to regulate entry into S PHASE and also interacts with CYCLIN A to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. Its activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P21.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
A statistical analytic technique used with discrete dependent variables, concerned with separating sets of observed values and allocating new values. It is sometimes used instead of regression analysis.
Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.
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Bioinformatics is the application of computer software and hardware to the management of biological data to create useful information. Computers are used to gather, store, analyze and integrate biological and genetic information which can then be applied...