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Eupenifeldin, a bistropolone meroterpenoid, was first discovered as an antitumor agent from the fungus Eupenicillium brefeldianum. We also isolated this compound and a new congener from a strain of Phoma sp. (CGMCC 10481), and evaluated their antitumor effects. Eupenifeldin showed potent in vitro anti-glioma activity. This tropolone-humulene-tropolone meroterpenoid could be originated from two units of tropolone orthoquinone methides and a 10-hydroxyhumulene moiety via hetero-Diels-Alder reactions. To explore the biosynthesis of this class of tropolonic sesquiterpenes, the genome of a eupenifeldin-producing Phoma sp. was sequenced and analyzed. The biosynthetic gene cluster of eupenifeldin (eup) was identified and partially validated by genomic analysis, gene disruption, and product analysis. A nonreducing polyketide synthase EupA, a FAD-dependent monooxygenase EupB, and a non-heme Fe (II)-dependent dioxygenase EupC, were identified as the enzymes responsible for tropolone formation. While the terpene cyclase EupE of an unknown family was characterized to catalyze humulene formation, and a cytochrome P450 enzyme EupD was responsible for hydroxylation of humulene. This study sheds light on the biosynthesis of eupenifeldin, and paves the way to further decipher its biosynthetic pathway.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Fungal genetics and biology : FG & B
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Members of the beta-globin family. In humans, they are encoded in a gene cluster on CHROMOSOME 11. They include epsilon-globin, gamma-globin, delta-globin and beta-globin. There is also a pseudogene of beta (theta-beta) in the gene cluster. Adult HEMOGLOBIN is comprised of two ALPHA-GLOBIN chains and two beta-globin chains.
Members of the alpha-globin family. In humans, they are encoded in a gene cluster on CHROMOSOME 16. They include zeta-globin and alpha-globin. There are also pseudogenes of zeta (theta-zeta) and alpha (theta-alpha) in the cluster. Adult HEMOGLOBIN is comprised of 2 alpha-globin chains and 2 beta-globin chains.
The production of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS by the constituents of a living organism. The biosynthesis of proteins on RIBOSOMES following an RNA template is termed translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). There are other, non-ribosomal peptide biosynthesis (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NUCLEIC ACID-INDEPENDENT) mechanisms carried out by PEPTIDE SYNTHASES and PEPTIDYLTRANSFERASES. Further modifications of peptide chains yield functional peptide and protein molecules.
The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.
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