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Cardiovascular disease risk factors (CVD-RFs) are associated with decreased gray and white matter integrity and cognitive impairment in older adults. Less is known regarding the interplay between CVD-RFs, brain structural connectome integrity, and cognition. We examined whether CVD-RFs were associated with measures of tract-based structural connectivity in 94 non-demented/non-depressed older adults and if alterations in connectivity mediated associations between CVD-RFs and cognition. Participants (age = 68.2 years; 52.1% female; 46.8% Black) underwent CVD-RF assessment, MRI, and cognitive evaluation. Framingham 10-year stroke risk (FSRP-10) quantified CVD-RFs. Graph theory analysis integrated T1-derived gray matter regions of interest (ROIs; 23 a-priori ROIs associated with CVD-RFs and dementia), and diffusion MRI-derived white matter tractography into connectivity matrices analyzed for local efficiency and nodal strength. A principal component analysis resulted in three rotated factor scores reflecting executive function (EF; FAS, Trail Making Test (TMT) B-A, Letter-Number Sequencing, Matrix Reasoning); attention/information processing (AIP; TMT-A, TMT-Motor, Digit Symbol); and memory (CVLT-II Trials 1-5 Total, Delayed Free Recall, Recognition Discriminability). Linear regressions between FSRP-10 and connectome ROIs adjusting for word reading, intracranial volume, and white matter hyperintensities revealed negative associations with nodal strength in eight ROIs (p-values<.05) and negative associations with efficiency in two ROIs, and a positive association in one ROI (p-values<.05). There was mediation of bilateral hippocampal strength on FSRP-10 and AIP, and left rostral middle frontal gyrus strength on FSRP-10 and AIP and EF. Stroke risk plays differential roles in connectivity and cognition, suggesting the importance of multi-modal neuroimaging biomarkers in understanding age-related CVD-RF burden and brain-behavior.
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The relating of causes to the effects they produce. Causes are termed necessary when they must always precede an effect and sufficient when they initiate or produce an effect. Any of several factors may be associated with the potential disease causation or outcome, including predisposing factors, enabling factors, precipitating factors, reinforcing factors, and risk factors.
Restoration of functions to the maximum degree possible in a person or persons suffering from a CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE. It also includes cardiac conditioning and SECONDARY PREVENTION in patients with elevated cardiovascular risk profile.
Loss of vascular ELASTICITY due to factors such as AGING; and ARTERIOSCLEROSIS. Increased arterial stiffness is one of the RISK FACTORS for many CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES.
Measure of the burden of disease using the disability-adjusted-life-year (DALY). This time-based measure combines years of life lost due to premature mortality and years of life lost due to time lived in states of less than full health. The metric was developed to assess the burden of disease consistently across diseases, risk factors and regions.
A large family of structurally-related transcription factors that were originally discovered based upon their close sequence homology to an HMG-box domain found in SEX-DETERMINING REGION Y PROTEIN. Many SOX transcription factors play important roles in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION. The numerous members of this family are organized in several subgroups according to structural identities found within the proteins.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD)
Acute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) Blood Cardiovascular Dialysis Hypertension Stent Stroke Vascular Cardiovascular disease (CVD) includes all the diseases of the heart and circulation including coronary heart disease (angina...