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Macrophage phenotype conversion is crucial for improving post-traumatic angiogenesis and tissue repair. Biomaterials with the ability of skewing macrophage phenotype have attracted widespread attention in the field of tissue engineering. The aim of this study was to transform macrophage phenotype by a three-step process; anodizing, drug loading and coating with polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) films. Interleukin (IL)-4, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, was loaded into titania nanotubes (TNTs) on the titanium surface. Subsequently, sodium alginate (ALG) and chitosan (CS) were alternately assembled onto IL-4-loaded TNTs and cross-linked with genipin/calcium chloride, finally forming cross-linked PEM films. The IL-4 release profile and cellular immune response of the modified surface was investigated. In the simulated biological solution, only 20% of IL-4 were detected in the first 3 days, with a sustained release of approximately 5 ng over 10 days. The results of gene expression and protein secretion in macrophages indicated that IL-4-loaded PEM films significantly attenuated the inflammatory activity of macrophages at the later stage through down-regulating the mRNA and protein levels of inflammatory markers. In summary, IL-4 was controlled released from the cross-linked PEM films deposited on the nanotubes, leading to the temporal conversion of macrophage phenotype.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: International journal of biological macromolecules
To design titanium (Ti)-based biomaterials with controlled drug-releasing bioactive property, TiO nanotubes with a diameter of approximately 110 nm was fabricated by electrochemical anodization. TiO...
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NANOTUBES formed from cyclic peptides (PEPTIDES, CYCLIC). Alternating D and L linkages create planar rings that self assemble by stacking into nanotubes. They can form pores through CELL MEMBRANE causing damage to cells.
Nanometer-sized tubes composed of various substances including carbon (CARBON NANOTUBES), boron nitride, or nickel vanadate.
Nanometer-sized tubes composed mainly of CARBON. Such nanotubes are used as probes for high-resolution structural and chemical imaging of biomolecules with ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY.
Works consisting of nonfiction films and video designed to teach, instruct, or train. (From Moving Image Materials: Genre Terms, 1988)
Specialized regions of the cell membrane composed of pits coated with a bristle covering made of the protein CLATHRIN. These pits are the entry route for macromolecules bound by cell surface receptors. The pits are then internalized into the cytoplasm to form the COATED VESICLES.
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