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Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) are a family of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) involved in host antibacterial responses, and their functions have been characterized in most invertebrate and vertebrate animals. However, little information is available regarding the function of frog PGRPs. In this study, a short-type PGRP (termed Xl-PGRP-S) gene was identified in the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis. The predicted protein of Xl-PGRP-S contains several structural features known in PGRPs, including a typical PGRP domain and two closely spaced conserved cysteines. Xl-PGRP-S gene was constitutively expressed in all tissues examined, with the highest expression level observed in muscle. As a typical PRR, Xl-PGRP-S is inducible after peptidoglycan (PGN) stimulation, and has an ability to bind PGN. In addition, Xl-PGRP-S has been proven to have Zn-dependent amidase activity and antibacterial activity against Edwardsiella tarda. The present study represents the first discovery on the function of frog PGRPs, thus contributing to a better understanding of the functional evolution of PGRPs in early tetrapods.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Developmental and comparative immunology
Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) are members of an important class of pattern recognition receptors in insects that can specifically recognize peptidoglycan (PGN) in bacterial cell walls and...
Peptidoglycan recognition protein 2 (PGRP2) is a Zn-dependent peptidase that plays important roles in binding to microbial components of the cell membrane, inducing phagocytosis and antimicrobial acti...
Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) widely distributed in invertebrates and vertebrates are pattern-recognition molecules in innate immunity. In the present study, a novel short PGRP gene, desi...
Peptidoglycan is the key component forming the backbone of bacterial cell wall. It can be recognized by a group of pattern recognition receptors, known as peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) in...
Insects lack an acquired immune system and rely solely on the innate immune system to combat microbial infection. The innate immunity of insects mainly depends on the interaction between the host's pa...
Characterization of the Molecular Mechanisms Involved in Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity Reactions to House Dust Mite, Diphencyprone, Nickel, and Tuberculin Purified Protein Derivative in Healthy Volunteers
This study will be conducted in 2 cohorts. In Cohort A, approximately 40 subjects will participate in a single-center, open-label, non-randomized, parallel-group trial to investigate the ...
A total of 40 patients with CP (20 smokers (S+CP) and 20 nonsmokers (S-CP)) and 40 periodontally healthy subjects (20 smokers (S+PH) and 20 nonsmokers (S-PH)), comprising 80 subjects, were...
In Martinique, about 33 new cases are diagnosed per year, with a high incidence rate of type 2 endometrial carcinoma which has a poor prognosis with few therapeutic options. Although targe...
The purpose of the study is to analyze biological samples and genetic material for basic science research investigating the molecular and cellular characterization of skull base tumors.
The trial will enroll 194 previously untreated DLBCL patients over 20 months, with the objective to send to the local investigator an extensive molecular tumor characterization by D38 in a...
A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (FUSION REGULATORY PROTEIN 1, HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (FUSION REGULATORY PROTEIN 1, LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.
Enzyme systems containing a single subunit and requiring only magnesium for endonucleolytic activity. The corresponding modification methylases are separate enzymes. The systems recognize specific short DNA sequences and cleave either within, or at a short specific distance from, the recognition sequence to give specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. Enzymes from different microorganisms with the same specificity are called isoschizomers. EC 220.127.116.11.
Enzyme systems composed of two subunits and requiring ATP and magnesium for endonucleolytic activity; they do not function as ATPases. They exist as complexes with modification methylases of similar specificity listed under EC 18.104.22.168 or EC 22.214.171.124. The systems recognize specific short DNA sequences and cleave a short distance, about 24 to 27 bases, away from the recognition sequence to give specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. Enzymes from different microorganisms with the same specificity are called isoschizomers. EC 126.96.36.199.
A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.
Protein motif that contains a 33-amino acid long sequence that often occurs in tandem arrays. This repeating sequence of 33-amino acids was discovered in ANKYRIN where it is involved in interaction with the anion exchanger (ANION EXCHANGE PROTEIN 1, ERYTHROCYTE). Ankyrin repeats cooperatively fold into domains that mediate molecular recognition via protein-protein interactions.
Within medicine, nutrition (the study of food and the effect of its components on the body) has many different roles. Appropriate nutrition can help prevent certain diseases, or treat others. In critically ill patients, artificial feeding by tubes need t...
Bioinformatics is the application of computer software and hardware to the management of biological data to create useful information. Computers are used to gather, store, analyze and integrate biological and genetic information which can then be applied...