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Using a coarse-grained bead-spring model of bacterial chromosomes of Caulobacter crescentus and Escherichia coli, we show that just 33 and 38 effective cross-links in 4017 and 4642 monomer chains at special positions along the chain contour can lead to the large-scale organization of the DNA polymer, where confinement effects of the cell walls play a key role in the organization. The positions of the 33/38 cross-links along the chain contour are chosen from the Hi-C contact map of bacteria C. crescentus and E. coli. We represent 1000 base pairs as a coarse-grained monomer in our bead-spring flexible ring polymer model of the DNA polymer. Thus, 4017/4642 beads on a flexible ring polymer represent the C. crescentus/E. coli DNA polymer with 4017/4642 kilo-base pairs. Choosing suitable parameters from Paper I, we also incorporate the role of compaction of the polymer coil due to the presence of molecular crowders and the ability of the chain to release topological constraints. We validate our prediction of the organization of the bacterial chromosomes with available experimental data and also give a prediction of the approximate positions of different segments within the cell. In the absence of confinement, the minimal number of effective cross-links required to organize the DNA chains of 4017/4642 monomers was 60/82 [Agarwal et al., Europhys. Lett. 121, 18004 (2018) and Agarwal et al., J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 30, 034003 (2018)].
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: The Journal of chemical physics
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Bifunctional cross-linking agent that links covalently free amino groups of proteins or polypeptides, including those in cell membranes. It is used as reagent or fixative in immunohistochemistry and is a proposed antisickling agent.
The reciprocal exchange of segments at corresponding positions along pairs of homologous CHROMOSOMES by symmetrical breakage and crosswise rejoining forming cross-over sites (HOLLIDAY JUNCTIONS) that are resolved during CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION. Crossing-over typically occurs during MEIOSIS but it may also occur in the absence of meiosis, for example, with bacterial chromosomes, organelle chromosomes, or somatic cell nuclear chromosomes.
A plasmid whose presence in the cell, either extrachromosomal or integrated into the BACTERIAL CHROMOSOME, determines the "sex" of the bacterium, host chromosome mobilization, transfer via conjugation (CONJUGATION, GENETIC) of genetic material, and the formation of SEX PILI.
Staining of bands, or chromosome segments, allowing the precise identification of individual chromosomes or parts of chromosomes. Applications include the determination of chromosome rearrangements in malformation syndromes and cancer, the chemistry of chromosome segments, chromosome changes during evolution, and, in conjunction with cell hybridization studies, chromosome mapping.
The methyl imidoester of suberic acid used to produce cross links in proteins. Each end of the imidoester will react with an amino group in the protein molecule to form an amidine.
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